The Gravitational Instability Cosmological Theory

Saturday, August 21, 2004

The Gravitational Instability Cosmological Theory on the Formation of the Universe

Sent to:Science Magazine Aug 2 2004

The Gravitational Instability Cosmological Theory
on the Formation of the Universe.

When the Universe started to fall

(1) The expansion of the universe is a result of the " heat ' contained therein;

(2) The source of the " heat " is the cosmic microwave radiation backround at 3 kelvin,
wherein;

(3) The microwave electro magnetic-nuclear energy was formed as a result of the
interaction of two different static gravitational vacuum fields, causing gravitational
instability and the motion, void of matter, at this time,

wherein; static gravitational field (1) began to go into "motion".

Therefore; only (2) static gravitational vacuum fields alone, being void of E=MC^2

could create E=MC^2; and the matter of the Universe.

When did motion first start ?

Science knows the formation of matter in our universe was caused by the forces of the

universe.

These forces are:

(1) The Force of Gravity

(2) The Force of Electro Magnetism

(3) The Strong Nuclear Force

(4) The Weak Nuclear Force

At some point in time, motion within the universe, had to begin.
The paradox would be, what force could cause motion to begin, without moving in its
present space-time ?

The Gravitational Cosmological Theory was
developed from an is rooted in the Einstein Steady State Theory and the Bondi-Gold-Hoyle Steady State Theory,

Wherein the Steady State Theory the universe,
contains more protons than electrons that
create dust particles and
galaxies formed in their current locations and the cosmic
matter is recycled therein at the center of the galaxy furnace.
------------
When the Universe started to fall:
The Gravitational Instability Cosmological Theory on the Formation of the Universe.
The Theory:
(1) The expansion of the universe is a result of the " heat ' contained therein;
(2) The source of the " heat " is the cosmic microwave radiation backround at 3 kelvin,
wherein;
(3) The microwave electro magnetic-nuclear energy was formed as a result of the
interaction of two different static gravitational vacuum fields, causing gravitational
instability and the motion, void of matter, at this time, wherein; static gravitational
field (1) began to go into "motion".
Therefore; only (2) static gravitational vacuum fields alone, being void of E=MC^2
could create E=MC^2; and the matter of the Universe.
Q: When did this motion start?
A: If a neutral particle is able to resist the universal motion, in theory, that particle
would go back in time. Going back in time the neutral particle would then enter into (1)
of the (2) motionless-static gravity vacuum fields void of motion, and cause an unbalance
and gravitational instability and this interaction would create motion and energy
particles.
Q: What causes a gravitational static vacuum field in the first place ?
A: Pressure force is used to create a vacuum on Earth, perhaps an exotic something
100,000 times weaker than the force of gravity decays, causing a static-motionless gravity vacuum field.

Theory by

Rev Daniel Izzo July 2002
512 Onondaga Ave
Syracuse, NY 13207

9 Comments:

At August 21, 2004 at 2:16 AM, Blogger Rev Dan Izzo said...

Subj: The Steady State Theory verses The Big Bang Theory / Cosmological alternatives

Alternative Theory (2)


The Steady State Galaxy Theory

by R.Rufus Young
galaxy@nbnet.nb.ca
Last revised Dec 30,1996

An Alternative To

The Big Bang Theory

Go to Text only version. INDEX


Introduction
Basic Operation of Galaxies
Mass and Energy
Shape of Galaxies
Red Shift
Microwave Background Radiation
Entropy
Hydrogen-Helium Ratio
Quasars
Summary Introduction

The purpose of this Web Page is to show that the Steady State Galaxy Theory can provide an alternative to the Big Bang Theory in explaining the universe around us. It covers the operation of Galaxies and shows that they recycle both Matter and Energy and are able to carry on indefinitely. It also explains the Shape of Galaxies, Red Shift, Microwave Background Radiation, Entropy and the Hydrogen-Helium Ratio.

If the reader takes an open-minded approach and looks at all aspects of the material presented here before reaching any conclusions, it will, at least, provide them with some food for thought.

Basic Operation of Galaxies

At the center of each galaxy is a neutroid which acts to constantly recycle all the matter and energy in the galaxy. This neutroid is similar to a neutron star but is very much larger and has reached a size where the pressure and temperature at its surface are great enough to generate a nuclear fusion process. In the areas of the neutroid's magnetic poles, the products of fusion are trapped by the magnetic field and are pushed out along the magnetic field by the pressure of the nuclear fusion process going on below. This results in a column of material composed of hydrogen, helium and other light elements being ejected at each of the neutroid's two magnetic poles. This material moves out from the neutroid at essentially constant velocity until it reaches a point where the magnetic field is no longer strong enough to control it. Once free of the magnetic field the material then continues under it's own momentum to travel to the outer edge of the galaxy before starting to fall back toward the neutroid.

This process enables the neutroid to eject matter from itself and results in jets of hydrogen and helium ions being produced at each of the neutroid's two magnetic poles. The larger the neutroid becomes, the greater the size and velocity of its jets. This becomes a stable and self-limiting process where the amount of material attracted to the neutroid will be equal to the amount of material expelled at its magnetic poles. Eventually if too much material is added to the system, the velocity of the material being ejected from the magnetic poles will be sufficient for it to escape from the system altogether, thus limiting the total mass the system can accumulate. This process forms the basis of operation of all galaxies. The size and shape of galaxies are determined by the size of the neutroid at their center and its rate and plane of rotation. In the case of our own galaxy (The Milky Way) these jets have sufficient momentum to carry the material out to 100,000 light years distance from the center.

As the jets of gas stream out from the Neutroid, large clouds of it condense and form the stars which are predominately located in the spiral arms of the Galaxies. These stars eventually burn up their Hydrogen fuel and in the process create the other heavier elements we find in the universe, all the while continuing to travel to the outer edge of the galaxy. It has probably been at least 10 Billion years since the material of which our solar system is composed was initially ejected from the neutroid. It is now located about 2/3rds the distance to the edge of the galaxy, but since it is constantly decelerating it will take it another 20 billion years to reach its maximun distance from the neutroid. The total transit time from when material is ejected from the neutroid at the center of the Milky Way to when it returns to the neutroid will be about 60 Billion years.

Although the material ejected by the neutroid appears to travel in a spiral arc, in actual fact it is travelling in a straight radial line out from the neutroid and will eventually travel back along the same radial path to the neutroid. To help visualize this process, imagine setting up two super cannons, each on opposite sides of the earth at the equator and each pointing straight up and each capable of firing a projectile with sufficient velocity that it will take 12 hours to reach the top of its projectory. Now, fire a projectile from each cannon every hour for 12 hours and plot the position of each projectile at the end of the 12 hours. The result, as shown in figure 1, will be two spiral arms much like the Galactic arms are shaped.

IF we continue the experiment for another 3 hours and draw a new plot, figure 2, we find that the first projectiles that were fired have now passed the peak of their altitude and have started to fall back to earth and the whole spiral pattern appears to have rotated counterclockwise 45 degrees. However, the only changes in the positions of projectiles No.1 have been to move slightly closer to the earth along a radial line and they will continue falling back to earth along the same radial path and will impact the earth 24 hours after being fired. They do not themselves travel in a spiral path around the earth although the loci of their instantaneous positions forms a spiral which appears to be rotating.

Figure 3 represents a typical small galaxy which is composed of 3 parts, (a) a Central Core (Area 1), (b) 2 Jets of material being ejected from the core (Areas 1 to 2), and (c) Spiral Arms (Areas 2 to 3). The Central Core consists of a neutroid at the center and an obscuring mass of material trapped in the Neutroid's magnetic field. The areas from 1 to 2 are gigantic jets of gas which are being ejected by the Neutroid and are contained within its magnetic field. Star formation occurs in these areas. At point 2 the magnetic field of the Neutroid weakens to the extent that it no longer constrains the material within it and as the material continues to move outward it will now trace a spiral arc as per the previous illustrations in Figs. 1 & 2. At point 3 the hydrogen fuel has been consumed and although the remains of the burned out stars are still there they become invisible dark matter as they continue to travel to the top of their projectory and then fall back to the Neutroid.

Thus, the galaxies form huge recycling systems which will carry on indefinitely.

Hydrogen, helium and other light elements are ejected ejected from the Neutroid.
Clouds of this material condense to forms stars which emit energy and in the process form heavier elements.
These stars eventually exhaust their fuel and die. In the process many of these stars will explode as supernovas. The heavier elements which we find in our solar system are the remnants from these dead stars.
All this material will travel to the outer edge of the galaxy and will then start falling back in toward the neutroid.
Upon hitting the neutroid, the force of the impact will be great enough that the atoms of heavier elements will be split apart and the temperature and pressure will be great enough that this incoming matter will be converted to neutrons.
In the areas of the neutroid's magnetic poles, a nuclear fusion reaction will take place that forces a streams of material to be expelled thus completing the cycle.

(return to index)

Mass and Energy

Einstein showed that mass and energy are related by the formula E=MC^2. What this famous formula says is that what we call the mass of a particle is really nothing more than a measure of the sum total of all forms of energy associated with that particle. The various forms of energy include potential energy, kinetic energy, chemical energy, nuclear binding energy, etc. Of these various forms of energy, potential energy is the most important and accounts for the largest part of the mass of particles which constitute our immediate enviroment.

When a particle is in a deep gravational well, such as in the case of particles that make up the neutroid at the center of galaxies, they have very little potential energy,and hence, very little rest mass. As they are pushed out from the neutroid their potential energy and hence their rest mass is increased dramatically. When these particles eventually fall back into the neutroid, this potential energy is converted to kinetic energy and results in the particles making up the neutroid having very little rest mass but a tremendous amount of kinetic energy.

This combination of low rest mass and high kinetic energy prevent the neutroid from collapsing into a black hole as has been speculated by many scientists. This combination also makes it relatively easy for a nuclear fussion process to push material out from the neutroid in the area of the neutroid's magnetic poles.

(return to index)

Shape of Galaxies

The Concept of the Steady State Galaxy as put forth above can account for the shape of all galaxies we see in the universe. As explained above, the spiral is the basic shape of galaxies. The exact shape will be determined by the size of the neutroid, the tilt of its magnetic axis with respect to its axis of rotation and its rate of rotation .

Our Milky-Way is typical of large mature galaxies in which it takes many billions of years for the magnetic poles to make one revolution. As well, the hydrogen ejected at the magnetic poles has sufficient velocity to reach a distance of 100,000 light-years from the Neutroid and it takes it tens of billions of years to reach that distance. If the rate of rotation of the magnetic poles of the Neutroid were much greater in relation to the velocity of the hydrogen jets, the spiral arms would overlap and become nondistinct thus forming an ELIPICAL Galaxy. If the magnetic axis were slightly less than 90 degrees with respect to the axis of rotation, a thicker galaxy would result.

BAR Galaxies are small galaxies in which the hydrogen fueling the Stars is all consumed before the Stars can escape the magnetic field of the Neutroid's magnetic poles.

Many galaxies such as M104(NGC4594) exhibit a very prominent dust lane about their edge. This is a feature that is difficult to explain using presently accepted theories but is to be expected in some types of galaxies under the steady state galaxy theory.

(return to index)

Red Shift

The Big Bang Theory was originally proposed in order to explain the 'RED Shift' of light received by us from distant galaxies. Light received from distant stars can be broken down and analyzed as to its spectral content. It has been found that stars of a similar size and age produce identical spectral patterns which are related to their atomic composition. However, it was also found that the wavelength of the light from distant galaxies was increased in proportion to their distance from us. Scientists have interpreted the cause of this effect to be due to a doppler shift, meaning that it is caused by the distant galaxies moving away from us,-i.e. the expanding universe. This doppler shift is the same as one gets standing near a railway track when a train passes blowing its whistle, as the train passes by, the sound of its whistle appears to drop in frequency.

In reality the universe we live in is not expanding and is in a steady state where its matter and energy are being constantly recycled. The so called Red Shift is caused by other factors. We know from a branch of Physics known as Quantum Mechanics that the Energy of a photon of light is defined by the equation E=hv where E is the energy of the photon, h is plancks' constant and v is its frequency. If for any reason energy is lost from a photon, its frequency will decrease in accordance with this equation.

Scientists do not as yet have a good understanding of the nature of a photon as to whether it is a particle or a wave, or some combination of both. Although experiments done by Michhelson and Morley and others have been interpreted to rule out the existence of an universal aether, this is by no means certain. Scientists can't measure what happens to a photon over a period of a minute, let alone what happens to to it over a period of a billion years. Based on current knowledge, there is no way scientists can state with absolute certainty that photons do not lose energy over time.

The mechanism for the lose of energy by photons over time is still unclear. It could be by interaction of the photon with the stray atoms of hydrogen which are dispersed throughout intergalactic space. It is well known that photons do exert 'radiation pressure' on particles they encounter and if pressure is exerted, then energy must be transferred. Another possibility is that there is indeed an aether which absorbs some energy over time and reradiates it as a black body radiator having a temperature of 2.8 degrees K. One thing that is clear is that the radiation density of the starlight photons which leave own galaxy is equal to the radiation density of the Microwave Background radiation which is received by our galaxy. This fact is probably more than a coincidence and is an indication that the starlight radiation is being converted by some unknown process to the Microwave Background radiation. It is every bit as reasonable to assume that the Red Shift is caused by loss of energy of the photon over time as it is to assume that it is caused by a doppler effect.

Because of the downshifting in the frequency of light for whatever reason, there is a limit to how far it is possible to image distant galaxies. The actual universe will be far larger than we can imagine or detect and will probably be infinite in size.

(return to index)

MicroWave Background Radiation

A second argument which has been made to support the Big Bang Theory is the microwave background radiation. COBE has shown that the spectrum of the Microwave Background Radiation (MBR) is that of an ideal Black Body Radiator having a temperature of about 2.8 degrees K. It has also shown that this radiation has a Redshift/Blueshift to it, indicating that the earth is moving about 300Km/s relative to the shell of matter that emitted the radiation. Since this speed is too great for the earth's movement within the milky-way galaxy, it indicates that the source is outside our galaxy and that our galaxy is moving in relation to that source.

As indicated in the previous section dealing with redshift, the starlight photons radiated by galaxies gradually lose energy through some unknown process which then reradiates this energy as the Microwave Background Radiation. The wavelength of the photons of the MBR, at the peak of the spectrum radiation curve, will be about 1mm. Since the rate of loss of energy by photons will be inversely proportional to the wavelength of those photons, and since the MBR photons have a wavelength of more than a thousand times that of visible light, the percentage loss of energy by the MBR photons will be at a rate of over one thousand times less than that of a visible photon. (If it takes a visible photon 15 billion years to lose 3/4's of it's energy, then it would take a MBR photon 15,000 billion years to lose 3/4's of it's energy). It follows that since MBR photons have a range of travel of more than one thousand times that of visible light photons, they are also a thousand times more likely to encounter a galaxy and be absorbed by the matter of that galaxy then a visible light photon would.

Thus, energy is radiated by galaxies in the form of starlight photons. Energy from these photons is gradually converted to MBR photons. These MBR photons are eventually absorbed by some other galaxy.

Since the intensity of the microwave background radiation will be relatively constant throughout the universe (assuming an infinite steady state universe), the amount of energy a galaxy will absorb from it will be proportional to the size of that galaxy. The amount of energy a galaxy radiates is also proportional to it's size, thus an equilibrium will be reached where a galaxy will receive as much energy in the form of MBR photons as it itself radiates in the form of starlight photons.

(return to index)

Entropy

A third argument that has been put forward in support of the Big Bang Theory is entropy, in that, it is argued that the universe must eventually run down into a state of thermal equilibrium. Energy exists in various forms such as atomic binding energies, thermal energy, potential and kinetic energy, etc., all of which are associated with matter, or it exists in photons which have been radiated by matter and will eventually be reabsorbed by matter. Under the Steady State Galaxy Theory as put forth above, since all matter in a Galaxy is recycled through the Neutroid on a regular basis, all energy contained by that matter is also recycled at the same time and, thus, the universe does not run down into a state of thermal equilibrium.

There is a perception that energy only flows from hot bodies to cooler ones. This is not true for radiant energy. The MBR photons which exhibit the characteristics of a 2.8 degree black body radiator do get absorbed by the much hotter material which makes up the galaxies. The critical factor which determines the direction of net flow of radiant energy is not the relative temperatures of the bodies but the energy densities they produce. In the case of our universe, the MBR radiation has an energy density equal to the starlight radiation energy density emitted by the galaxies. Thus, there is an equilibrium condition where galaxies receive as much energy in the form of MBR Radiation as they radiate in the form of Starlight Radiation and there will be no net flow of energy from the galaxies to the material in intergalactic space.

(return to index)

Hydrogen-Helium

A fourth arguement which has been used to support the Big Bang theory is that it would account for the abundance of helium we find in the universe. The amount of helium present (24%) cannot be accounted for by star production and according to Gamow it was generated by the Big Bang.

Under the Steady State Galaxy theory, the nuclear fusion process which is expelling the material from the neutroid would generate large amounts of helium as well as other light elements and is the source of the excess helium found in the universe.

(return to index)

Quasars

The latest Hubble pictures of quasars show that they are associated with galaxies and in most cases there is evidence that these galaxies have recently collided with other galaxies.

In normal galaxies, the neutroid at their center is obscured by a halo of material trapped in the neutroid's magnetic field. In the case of quasars, this halo of material has been temporarily destroyed by the collision with another galaxy and we are seeing the bare neutroid which is, as expected, extremely energetic.

(return to index)

Summary

The Steady State Galaxy Theory as put forth above can provide the basis for the operation of the Universe as it is seen to exist. It can not only account for the shape of all galaxies we see in the universe which is something no other theory as proposed so far can accomplish but it can also explain the existence of quasars.

As more data is gathered by the Hubble Space Telescope and other sources, it is becoming increasingly clear that the Big Bang theory cannot account for the universe around us. I believe the the Steady State Galaxy Theory as presented here can provide the basis of an alternative to the Big Bang Theory.

(return to index) (return to top of page) Other Interesting Papers

For a historical perspective of the Big Bang Theory see Keith Stein's Essay "The Big Bang Myth"

"Endless, Boundless, Stable Universe" by Grote Reber -a pioneer in the field of Radio Astronomy.

"Dark Matter" and "Hubble's Constant in Terms of the Compton Effect" by John Kierein



Please E-mail me your comments and suggestions.

galaxy@nbnet.nb.ca
Last revised Dec 30,1996.
Copyright R.Rufus Young 1996 all rights reserved.
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At August 21, 2004 at 2:32 AM, Blogger Rev Dan Izzo said...

VORTEX

Liquid - Gravity Induced Vortex

A plug is pulled under a contained volume of liquid.
The liquid above the discharge opening starts dropping down through the opening creating a lower pressure column of liquid.
The Pascal’s rule of pressure in fluids says that the static pressure within the whole volume exerted sideways around this dropping column will attempt to fill into the dropping water column, creating an inverted cone of flow toward the discharge.
The surface plane of the liquid develops a hollow due to the pressure drop above the discharge.
If the liquid column is in a sufficient ratio to the opening diameter, gravitational acceleration at the surface hollow tends to outrun the discharge rate and any slightest impetus causes the liquid sliding down the slope of the depression to spin. Vortex develops easier in a conical vessel than in any other vessel, because it is the surface hollow where the gravitational acceleration causes the liquid to slide into the falling liquid column.
The static pressure orthogonal to the vortex vertical axis acts on the column as the total static pressure (area x force). Vortex spin translates this pressure into accelerating "orbital" speed of the column. (fig 1)
The circular motion component is triggered by external influences, such as rotation of earth, or by general liquid flow, if any. The circular motion within a vortex redirects the strictly centripetal horizontal pressure component in the liquid side railing it off the vertical axis of the vortex, accelerating the vortex circular motion. The static pressure in the liquid surrounding the vortex becomes realized into the circular motion of the vortex. Therefore, the horizontal vector of static pressure acts as a vortex spin accelerator. The dynamic relations within a vortex cause a greater transfer of gravitational energy into liquid circular motion, than can be accounted for by strictly downward static pressure calculations. If the liquid did not spin, the horizontal component of static pressure would act on the vortex axis symmetrically, and the would not be realized as spin motion.


In plain terms; while the orthogonal vector of static pressure from the surrounding volume acts on the column along the "surface" area of the whole column, it accelerates the spin of the column with total force equal to the static pressure drop per unit of area at the particular depth and at all these units. There are many more units (lets say mm^2) of the surface of the water column then in the cross section of the discharge hole.

In the most simple terms, the area across the static pressure acting on a vortex accelerating its liquid (or fluid) into spin is substantially greater than the cross sectional area of the discharge hole. The acceleration on the falling column comes from vertical acceleration of the column. In other words; the "horizontal" rotational component of gravitational acceleration of the liquid surrounding the vortex speeds up the circular component of water flow around the vortex. The vertical gravitational acceleration (drop) of water within the column is caused by vertical attraction on that column only. The vertical component of static pressure within the vortex is not lessened by all that much, as can be seen from the depth and size of the depression of the vortex at the surface.

As the column progresses in its vertical motion down, the energy of vortex circular speed is also progressively translated into the energy of vertical speed of the column. If the circular component of the vortex speed at the bottom of a discharge were used for energy production along with the falling column kinetic energy, these two components combined would supply greater total energy output than needed for lifting of the same liquid volume (per unit of time) to the original height.

In other words, we would be milking total static pressure exerted by gravitation on liquid volume from a much greater area than discharge hole area without having to pay the cost of returning that volume back to the height across that same area. It seems obvious from the above that static pressure, or tension of a field, can be translated into circular motion of a medium.

Vortex phenomenon is the proof that field “static potential” can be utilized for energy extraction. Vortex phenomenon also proves that the so-called "static potential" energy of fields is caused by dynamic energy flows. This does not violate any laws of physics, it is a law of physics.

The discharge and the surrounding containment have to be regular in shape, otherwise more and chaotic turbulences within the fluid accelerating through the discharge break the vortex symmetry and hinder its progress. Regular does not mean a perfect cone, but a shape mimicking the structure of natural turbulence. This shape is somewhat ropy walled parabolic cone.

VORTICES
The circumferential speed of liquid molecules within a vortex increases as the molecules approach the central axis of the vortex. Therefore, it is clear that the farther a molecule is from this axis, the lesser is its orbital speed.
Any object within such vortex, including the liquid molecules, spin themselves counter to the spin of the vortex, as their outer orbital speed is slower than their inner speed relative to the axis of the vortex. (Planetary gear or a bearing ball in a bearing represents such a counter spin)
Unless other forces are present, any small vortice within a major vortex counter spins.
Some claim that such a phenomenon has never been observed in nature. Crap. It is readily observable phenomenon on rivers. Any larger vortex in a cove of a river bend has these counter spinning satellite vortices present. They are usually transient, but are readily observable in nature.

This principle has a severe impact on the coalescing theory of planetary systems as well as galactic systems. It is obvious that planets should spin counter to planetary system. Since not all of them do, actually the majority does not, it is obvious that the spin of planets and stars has its casualty in the behavior of magnetic and electric fields, rather than being a remainder of gas cloud vortice motion within the solar system general vortex.

Any and every energy flow through a restriction under an orthogonal pressure of a field tends to develop a vortex structure. It does not matter whether that flow is liquid, gaseous or what we consider to be a field. The acceleration gain in a vortex is a utilizable phenomenon. It is one of the phenomena, which counteracts thermal entropy in the universe. It concentrates the rate of flow through a restriction utilizing a dispersed energy of a general field.

Any and every so-called massive particle contains a few geometries of vortexes (Nucleon). The main, dense flows can be considered to be magnetic field compounds of the dispersed electric field components. Electric field components qualify for a sort of aether, but not a chaotic aether of the past and not exactly liquid like in a sense of water in the sea. It’s liquid is comparable to water flow in rivers.

S.D.K. November 18, 2000

INDEXFIELD FORCES



We have a few principles of the induction of attractive and repulsive force.

The primary (snake propagation) has been described in my original Tour the Force

The secondary attractive force acts between two reciprocating counter flows of positive and negative components of primary as well as secondary gravitational field. The two flows, passing each other, vortex on their common side. Their mutual propagation along the long axis is caused by the primary principle, but the friction between these two flows creates vortexes between them slowing their common side fringe down as opposed to their far sides fringe.

If you care for a graphic description, look up some photos of Jupiter atmosphere. Its atmosphere moves in strips of counter flowing gas streams and these photos will do better than anything I can draw.

It is this slowing down of the near side fringe, which attracts parallel paths together. Once we have fringes on two or more sides of a single thread of a path, created by the proximity of other paths, we get a general field strength gradient toward the mother body wherever a mother body is present in space, a star, a planet, a wire.

Why wire? Look through a fly screen at some really colorful background. Autumn leaves on maple trees will do rather well. You will find out what I am talking about when you realize that the blurry effect you can see is caused by the “curvature of space” around the wires. That curvature is discriminate and it may resonate, although you would not see it. Such a resonance is behind the effect of Young double slit experiment. Yes, light is a sort of wave, but the explanation of Young double slit experiment is not a proof of it. It was a partly lucky and partly unlucky mistake.

Why the strings rubbing against each other by their fringes do not stop like any other frictional system? The energy of the path has nowhere to dissipate, so it does not dissipate anywhere. That energy can and is used once a gravitational field accelerates a solid body relative to the wavy pattern of the universe. It is used, or better said converted, while accelerating a fluid vortex spin and free fall. It gets transformed into higher orders of energy, be it thermal or kinetic, of what we call particulate, but other than that, it has nowhere to go. Its soliton turbulences are stable in that sense, that they pass energy one to another. The universal gravitational field is the ultimate storehouse of energy, from which all higher forms of energy arise and to which all higher forms of energy return.

We have learned how to convert thermal energy to mechanical energy and to electric dipole energy and back to some degree. Now we should learn how to convert gravitational energy to thermal, mechanical or electric dipole energy.

S.D.K. 14. April 2001

FIELDS 6
MAGNETIC LINES OF FORCE

Spacing of magnetic lines of force depends on at least two criteria.

The first one is the size of the iron shaving particulate. The finer is the size of the particulate, the finer is the line of force structure.

The second one is the intensity of the magnetic field. As pointed out in TTF, when we steadily increase the amp value in a DC conductor, the lined of force around the conductor contract and new lines are being added from the iron dust at the margin around the conductor. On the other hand, when we steadily decrease the Amp value in a DC conductor, the lines of force spread and the margin around the conductor collects the iron dust.

When are in the process of placing a steel object between two magnets, which are in attractive orientation and lets say 3” apart, the original lines of force between the two magnets distort so that they concentrate on the steel object. When we line up magnets in attractive orientation with spaces in between or steel objects between two magnets in attractive orientation, the lines of force join all the poles of the magnets or all the steel pieces between the magnets.

When we curve a set of magnets in attractive orientation with some spacing in between them so that the magnets create a circle, all lines of force join into the circle of the poles and the external lines of force (the donut) disappears.

The above (and much more) points out that iron, as well as magnets are able to attract and concentrate and lead magnetic field along any steel or iron or any ferromagnetic structure or permanent magnet structure. The lines of force are created by iron particulate of any size, but the size of the particulate decides how far apart the lines can be before the space between the lines begins to fill with magnetic field again.

When we stick two parallel rows of steel posts into the ground in even an approximate NS orientation, we create at least a partial gap in the magnetic field of earth within the isle between the rows of steel posts. The post distance in the row should be less than the distance of posts across the isle.

The same working arrangement can be created with help of electromagnets, again arranged into a double row, with all their poles oriented in one general geographic orientation and complying with geomagnetic field polarity orientation, because the electromagnets will again tie geomagnetic lines of force (actually create them) and concentrate the geomagnetic field into lines of force.

RELEVANCY

The relevancy of this comes out when we dig into the stone levitation story form Middle East which states:

“First, a 'magic papyrus' (paper) was placed under the stone to be moved. Then the stone was struck with a metal rod that caused the stone to levitate and move along a path paved with stones and fenced on either side by metal poles. The stone would travel along the path, wrote Al-Masudi, for a distance of about 50 meters and then settle to the ground. The process would then be repeated until the builders had the stone where they wanted it."

The same relevancy comes up when we dig into stories about Edward Leedskalnin and the artifacts left by him on his death at Coral Castle. Ed was the only man in the West who had been able to handle monoliths without the use of heavy machinery in modern times.

Leedskalnin had no outside source of hydropower, yet he had electrical installations on his property. He was able to handle blocks of coral stone up to 29 tons in weight as evidenced by his work for anyone to see. He seems to have used grids of copper wires and other electrical devices to help him with his work. He has also been reported to “sing” to his stones while working with them. When we read through Leadskalnin’s articles on magnetism, we can get the hang of what his idea behind his stone levitation was, especially when we learn that his work gloves and boots had sheet metal pieces attached to them. Unfortunately, he has not left an instruction manual and what he never revealed has to be found out.

It appears that steel or magnet or electromagnet induced geomagnetic field gap is not exactly necessary in order to achieve stone levitation, because other modern time report from Tibet does not include any steel or electric apparatus, never the less, there are possibly other ways in which magnetic field gaps can be created. Sound, on the other hand, is always reported as a factor.

Note, just about all the references needed can be found on KeelyNet. (See Links)

SDK 7 August 2001

FIELDS 7

INDEXTHE PRIMARY FIELD NETWORK

The “free” space of the universe is interwoven with uncountable paths of electric communication among the celestial bodies of the primary field. Polarity of each path of the primary field is steady and looped on the quark, nucleon, atom, molecule, planetary, galactic and eventually universal scale. Each quark and antiquark along a single path is strung on this path like a bead on a string. The permanent induction of such a path may join countless quarks of alternate electric polarity in countless bodies and the path is an integral part of those quarks. This two-way communication of flows with the quark knots on them can be compared to beads strung on a double thread string. I will assign red color to the positive “charge” quark and blue color to the negative “charge” quark. Figure one shows only one quark of a pair for simplicity.

Fig 1



The paths polarity directions between more than two bodies are not unidirectional even for a single circle path. The curvature of the path is not caused by inertia. It is caused by the directionality of the quark orientation at the point of exit and entry. See TTF2/FIELDS 5 for the cause of mutual adherence of the two directions of a single path of electric force exchange. The whole loop can be perceived as separate strings as well as a single string.

I have to create a term for the intersection related to the wave function of a path. The term is null axis point.

Fig 2



The paths of electric communication intersect in free space either actively at null axis points or passively at any other points on the paths. Figure three shows idealized planar arrangement. The sinusoids themselves will be distorted as paths standing waves compound at some places to some degree.

Fig 3



Once we understand that the path is a flow of something and that the wave of this flow is static or standing, like the riverbed of Mississippi river, we do not have to count in any frequencies of the paths when crossing each other as yet. The important condition is that any orthogonal paths intersect at their null axis points tying orthogonal paths together into network. Every two-path null point intersection generates turbulence between their four flows, somewhat similar to the cloverleaf intersection on a freeway. Stability of this turbulence is conditioned by the spatial frequency of the wave components of the paths. If the intersecting paths have harmonic relationship, which fits into the curved length of the turbulence (cloverleaf loop), the turbulence will be stable. If the two intersecting paths have disharmonic spatial frequencies, the turbulence will oscillate at best, and alternately fall apart and reestablish at the worst.

There are stable and unstable turbulences around the null axis point intersections of the field network holding the network together, some in a transient manner and some in a stable manner. The same is valid for the structure of nucleon, but it is not valid for the structure of emitted electron thermal phase.

When the primary gravitational field network gets disturbed at any point, it behaves as a three dimensional net. It does not mean that its structure follows three axes in Euclidian cubic axis arrangement. It only means that the space is filled through out with this network. The geometry of the network structure itself is multidirectional and constantly shifting. The directions of the paths within the network are just about as numerous as the paths themselves.

When we consider the field of a single charged spherical body, its geometry seems purely radial, i.e. scalar. When we consider geometry of the field of two reciprocating (opposite polarity) bodies, it changes quite drastically. The cause of the scalar field of a single charged body lies in the induction taking place between the body and air molecules and water vapor molecules and earth molecules and whatever molecules, or better said their component quarks all around the so called charged body. In practice, there is no scalar field. Scalar field is a theoretical idealization of crooked natural geometry. Perfect scalar field would require a perfect charged sphere within another perfect sphere (including perfect material), within which the charged sphere would be placed in dead center. The outer sphere would have to be perfectly isolated from the rest of the universe, otherwise it would induce its induced polarity toward the outside becoming a charged body to the outside and the ideal theoretical scalar field would become the practical crooked field. In reality, the inner charged body actually becomes electrically neutral. (Courtesy Joe Hiding)

Anyway, the network can be obviously shaped and disturbed and induced and manipulated as long as we know what we are dealing with and what we are doing with it. The notion that light is an electromagnetic phenomenon equivalent to radio waves and microwaves is incorrect. The experimentation of Nicola Tesla in Colorado has clearly shown that repeated manipulation of the geometry of the general field causes a general wave disturbance through out the network of gravitational field. This disturbance is a real longitudinal wave generated within the gravitational network. On the other hand, light is progressive unification of electric paths flows into a local magnetic flow.

The speed of light and the speed of gravitation and the speed of radio wave are interdependent because the wavelengths are interdependent. When you look back to the volleyball net analogy, you can realize that the transverse wave of single net string and the longitudinal wave of the whole net depend on each other in some ratio, whatever that ratio may be. It is a bit confusing to recognize what is a longitudinal wave within the whole network and what is a transverse wave in it. A disturbance, which propagates in one direction as a longitudinal wave, causes transverse wave in orthogonal directions and vice versa. Our concept of the transverse and longitudinal is derived from our string and spring experimenting, which limits our perception to the behavior of the string or the spring. We tear phenomena out of their context and study them out of their context. Then we grossly err applying the newly derived (experimentally as well as mentally confirmed within artificially imposed limits) concepts to the general behavior of the limitless universe.

S.D.K. 14. April 2001

FIELDS 5

INDEX









FORCES This site is dedicated to ideas. Some are mine, some belong to others.
Any and all of the information on this site is as is. If you dissagree with anything here, be aware that I also disagree with a lot of things.

BY S.D.K.




TOUR THE FORCE

Is a series of closely interrelated documents outlining the problems with the currently established interpretations of behavior of the most fundamental physical phenomena like heat, light, el. current etc. It does not argue with the established mathematical processes (so called mathematical theories), as most are reasonably valid generalizations of functions of particular natural forces. It argues with the concepts of why things behave the way they do and with their causality and geometrical as well as functional relationships, not with how much they behave.

Tour the Force contains a somewhat outdated line of deduction of what force phenomena really are all about and what are their mutual relations. The particulate causality of gravitational force and other force fields as such had to give way to simpler concept of wave relationship of energy flows along waves. Yet, this original Tour the Force has its relevancy in paving the road to understanding of Tour the Force 2

GISMOS

Contains assortment of descriptions and comments on a few man made contraptions, which were or are claimed to work as intended, as undependable as some may be.

TOUR THE FORCE 2

Contains updates to the original Tour the Force. This part is in development and I am uploading new documents as I manage to solve the different parts of the over all puzzle and put its documents into a reasonable form. My original Tour the Force is a prerequisite to understanding of Tour the Force 2.

EXPERIMENTS

Contains assorted bits and pieces of little known knowledge about anomalous experiments done by "less" learned folks. Some may have my explanations and all of them stress the need of humanity as such to resist the dogma of the established authority on truth.

IDEAS

Contains assorted ideas and experiences. Some of the ideas have the potential to eventually move to experiments once conclusively performed.

LINKS

Scientific as well as not so scientific references. They should be understood as pointers in directions of possible research, not as exhaustive sources of information. Lots of interesting stuff, lots of garbage. You have to do your own research and sorting out. Good luck.

VICTOR S. GREBENNIKOV

English translation of the original Russian text.

PATENTS

First of my patenting experiences concerns a simple brushless alternator. This attempt had gone to hell due to bottomless pockets of my former patent lawyers (for a translation of the English description into legalese worth close to C$ 5 500, submission fees extra). You can view the patent application here, as it was submitted to US patent office by my ex-patent agents. The patent has fallen into public domain due to insufficient funds.

My second patent experience concerns a very simple and very effective air (gas) dryer so far applied only on compressed air systems. I have applied for a patent registration and filed an application (Canadian) according to Canada Patent Office instructions myself. The application has been accepted and had cost C$150.00 plus registered mail. I have not quite revealed the whole patent here, but you can find its general description and experience with its performance here.



INDEX

 
At August 21, 2004 at 2:40 AM, Blogger Rev Dan Izzo said...

The Decay of the False Vacuum
Written by Sten Odenwald

Copyright (C) 1983 Kalmbach Publishing. Reprinted by permission


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
In the recently developed theory by Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam, that unifies the electromagnetic and weak forces, the vacuum is not empty. This peculiar situation comes about because of the existence of a new type of field, called the Higgs field. The Higgs field has an important physical consequence since its interaction with the W, W and Z particles (the carriers of the weak force) causes them to gain mass at energies below 100 billion electron volts (100 Gev). Above this energy they are quite massless just like the photon and it is this characteristic that makes the weak and electromagnetic forces so similar at high energy.
On a somewhat more abstract level, consider Figures 1 and 2 representing the average energy of the vacuum state. If the universe were based on the vacuum state in Figure 1, it is predicted that the symmetry between the electromagnetic and weak interactions would be quite obvious. The particles mediating the forces would all be massless and behave in the same way. The corresponding forces would be indistinguishable. This would be the situation if the universe had an average temperature of 1 trillion degrees so that the existing particles collided at energies of 100 Gev. In Figure 2, representing the vacuum state energy for collision energies below 100 Gev, the vacuum state now contains the Higgs field and the symmetry between the forces is suddenly lost or 'broken'. Although at low energy the way in which the forces behave is asymmetric, the fundamental laws governing the electromagnetic and weak interactions remain inherently symmetric. This is a very remarkable and profound prediction since it implies that certain symmetries in Nature can be hidden from us but are there nonetheless.

During the last 10 years physicists have developed even more powerful theories that attempt to unify not only the electromagnetic and weak forces but the strong nuclear force as well. These are called the Grand Unification Theories (GUTs) and the simplist one known was developed by Howard Georgi, Helen Quinn,and Steven Weinberg and is called SU(5), (pronounced 'ess you five'). This theory predicts that the nuclear and 'electroweak' forces will eventually have the same strength but only when particles collide at energies above 1 thousand trillion GeV corresponding to the unimaginable temperature of 10 thousand trillion trillion degrees! SU(5) requires exactly 24 particles to mediate forces of which the 8 massless gluons of the nuclear force, the 3 massless intermediate vector bosons of the weak force and the single massless photon of the electromagnetic force are 12. The remaining 12 represent a totally new class of particles called Leptoquark bosons that have the remarkable property that they can transform quarks into electrons. SU(5) therefore predicts the existence of a 'hyperweak' interaction; a new fifth force in the universe! Currently, this force is 10 thousand trillion trillion times weaker than the weak force but is nevertheless 100 million times stronger than gravity. What would this new force do? Since protons are constructed from 3 quarks and since quarks can now decay into electrons, through the Hyperweak interaction, SU(5) predicts that protons are no longer the stable particles we have always imagined them to be. Crude calculations suggest that they may have half-lives between 10(29) to 10(33) years. An immediate consequence of this is that even if the universe were destined to expand for all eternity, after 'only' 10(32) years or so, all of the matter present would catastrophically decay into electrons, neutrinos and photons. The Era of Matter, with its living organisms, stars and galaxies, would be swept away forever, having represented but a fleeting episode in the history of the universe. In addition to proton decay, SU(5) predicts that at the energy characteristic of the GUT transition, we will see the affects of a new family of particles called supermassive Higgs bosons whose masses are expected to be approximately 1 thousand trillion GeV! These particles interact with the 12 Leptoquarks and make them massive just as the Higgs bosons at 100 GeV made the W, W and Z particles heavy. Armed with this knowledge, let's explore some of the remarkable cosmological consequences of these exciting theories.

The GUT Era

To see how these theories relate to the history of the universe, imagine if you can a time when the average temperature of the universe was not the frigid 3 K that it is today but an incredable 10 thousand trillion trillion degrees (10(15) GeV). The 'Standard Model' of the Big Bang, tells us this happened about 10(-37) seconds after Creation. The protons and neutrons that we are familiar with today hadn't yet formed since their constituent quarks interacted much too weakly to permit them to bind together into 'packages' like neutrons and protons. The remaining constituents of matter, electrons, muons and tau leptons, were also massless and traveled about at essentially light-speed; They were literally a new form of radiation, much like light is today! The 12 supermassive Leptoquarks as well as the supermassivs Higgs bosons existed side-by-side with their anti-particles. Every particle-anti particle pair that was annihilated was balanced by the resurrection of a new pair somewhere else in the universe. During this period, the particles that mediated the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces were completely massless so that these forces were no longer distinguishable. An inhabitant of that age would not have had to theorize about the existence of a symmetry between the strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions, this symmetry would have been directly observable and furthermore, fewer types of particles would exist for the inhabitants to keep track of. The universe would actually have beed much simpler then!

As the universe continued to expand, the temperature continued to plummet. It has been suggested by Demetres Nanopoulis and Steven Weinberg in 1979 that one of the supermassive Higgs particles may have decayed in such a way that slightly more matter was produced than anti-matter. The remaining evenly matched pairs of particles and anti-particles then annihilated to produce the radiation that we now see as the 'cosmic fireball'.

Exactly what happened to the universe as it underwent the transitions at 10(15) and 100 GeV when the forces of Nature suddenly became distinguishable is still under investigation, but certain tantalizing descriptions have recently been offered by various groups of theoriticians working on this problem. According to studies by Alan Guth, Steven Weinberg and Frank Wilczyk between 1979 and 1981, when the GUT transition occured, it occured in a way not unlike the formation of vapor bubbles in a pot of boiling water. In this analogy, the interior of the bubbles represent the vacuum state in the new phase, where the forces are distinguishable, embedded in the old symmetric phase where the nuclear, weak and electromagnetic forces are indistinguishable. Inside these bubbles, the vacuum energy is of the type illustrated by Figure 2 while outside it is represented by Figure 1. Since we are living within the new phase with its four distinguishable forces, this has been called the 'true' vacuum state. In the false vacuum state, the forces remain indistinguishable which is certainly not the situation that we find ourselves in today!

Cosmic Inflation

An exciting prediction of Guth's model is that the universe may have gone through at least one period in its history when the expansion was far more rapid than predicted by the 'standard' Big Bang model. The reason for this is that the vacuum itself also contributes to the energy content of the universe just as matter and radiation do however, the contribution is in the opposite sense. Although gravity is an attractive force, the vacuum of space produces a force that is repulsive. As Figures 1 and 2 show, the minimum energy state of the false vacuum at 'A' before the GUT transition is at a higher energy than in the true vacuum state in 'B' after the transition. This energy difference is what contributes to the vacuum energy. During the GUT transition period, the positive pressure due to the vacuum energy would have been enormously greater than the restraining pressure produced by the gravitational influence of matter and radiation. The universe would have inflated at a tremendous rate, the inflation driven by the pressure of the vacuum! In this picture of the universe, Einstein's cosmological constant takes on a whole new meaning since it now represents a definite physical concept ; It is simply a measure of the energy difference between the true and false vacuum states ('B' and 'A' in Figures 1 and 2.) at a particular time in the history of the universe. It also tells us that, just as in de Sitter's model, a universe where the vacuum contributes in this way must expand exponentially in time and not linearly as predicted by the Big Bang model. Guth's scenario for the expansion of the universe is generally called the 'inflationary universe' due to the rapidity of the expansion and represents a phase that will end only after the true vacuum has supplanted the false vacuum of the old, symmetric phase.

A major problem with Guth's original model was that the inflationary phase would have lasted for a very long time because the false vacuum state is such a stable one. The universe becomes trapped in the cul-de-sac of the false vacuum state and the exponential expansion never ceases. This would be somewhat analogous to water refusing to freeze even though its temperature has dropped well below 0 Centigrade. Recent modifications to the original 'inflationary universe' model have resulted in what is now called the 'new' inflationary universe model. In this model, the universe does manage to escape from the false vacuum state and evolves in a short time to the familiar true vacuum state.

We don't really know how exactly long the inflationary phase may have lasted but the time required for the universe to double its size may have been only 10(-34) seconds. Conceivably, this inflationary period could have continued for as 'long' as 10(-24) seconds during which time the universe would have undergone 10 billion doublings of its size! This is a number that is truely beyond comprehension. As a comparison, only 120 doublings are required to inflate a hydrogen atom to the size of the entire visible universe! According to the inflationary model, the bubbles of the true vacuum phase expanded at the speed of light. Many of these had to collide when the universe was very young in order that the visible universe appear so uniform today. A single bubble would not have grown large enough to encompass our entire visible universe at this time; A radius of some 15-20 billion light years. On the other hand, the new inflationary model states that even the bubbles expanded in size exponentially just as their separations did. The bubbles themselves grew to enormous sizes much greater than the size of our observable universe. According to Albrecht and Steinhardt of the University of Pennsylvania, each bubble may now be 10(3000) cm in size. We should not be too concerned about these bubbles expanding at many times the speed of light since their boundaries do not represent a physical entity. There are no electrons or quarks riding some expandind shock wave. Instead, it is the non-material vacuum of space that is expanding. The expansion velocity of the bubbles is not limited by any physical speed limit like the velocity of light.

GUMs in GUTs

A potential problem for cosmologies that have phase transitions during the GUT Era is that a curious zoo of objects could be spawned if frequent bubble mergers occured as required by Guth's inflationary model. First of all, each bubble of the true vacuum phase contains its own Higgs field having a unique orientation in space. It seems likely that no two bubbles will have their Higgs fields oriented in quite the same way so that when bubbles merge, knots will form. According to Gerhard t'Hooft and Alexander Polyakov, these knots in the Higgs field are the magnetic monopoles originally proposed 40 years ago by Paul Dirac and there ought to be about as many of these as there were bubble mergers during the transition period. Upper limits to their abundance can be set by requiring that they do not contribute to 'closing' the universe which means that for particles of their predicted mass (about 10(16) GeV), they must be 1 trillion trillion times less abundant than the photons in the 3 K cosmic background. Calculations based on the old inflationary model suggest that the these GUMs (Grand Unification Monopoles) may easily have been as much as 100 trillion times more abundant than the upper limit! Such a universe would definitly be 'closed' and moreover would have run through its entire history between expansion and recollapse within a few thousand years. The new inflationary universe model solves this 'GUM' overproduction problem since we are living within only one of these bubbles, now almost infinitly larger than our visible universe. Since bubble collisions are no longer required to homogenize the matter and radiation in the universe, very few, if any, monopoles would exist within our visible universe.

Horizons

A prolonged period of inflation would have had an important influence on the cosmic fireball radiation. One long-standing problem in modern cosmology has been that all directions in the sky have the same temperature to an astonishing 1 part in 10,000. When we consider that regions separated by only a few degrees in the sky have only recently been in communication with one another, it is hard to understand how regions farther apart than this could be so similar in temperature. The radiation from one of these regions, traveling at the velocity of light, has not yet made it across the intervening distance to the other, even though the radiation may have started on its way since the universe first came into existence. This 'communication gap' would prevent these regions from ironing-out their temperature differences.

With the standard, Big Bang model, as we look back to earlier epochs from the present time, the separations between particles decrease more slowly than their horizons are shrinking. Neighboring regions of space at the present time, become disconnected so temperature differences are free to develope. Eventually, as we look back to very ancient times, the horizons are so small that every particle existing then literally fills the entire volume of its own, observable universe. Imagine a universe where you occupy all of the available space! Prior to the development of the inflationary models, cosmologists were forced to imagine an incredably well-ordered initial state where each of these disconnected domains (some 10(86) in number) had nearly identical properties such as temperature. Any departure from this situation at that time would have grown to sizable temperature differences in widely separated parts of the sky at the present time. Unfortunately, some agency would have to set-up these finely-tuned initial conditions by violating causality. The contradiction is that no force may operate by transmitting its influence faster than the speed of light. In the inflationary models, this contradiction is eliminated because the separation between widely scattered points in space becomes almost infinitly small compared to the size of the horizons as we look back to the epoc of inflation. Since these points are now within each others light horizons, any temperature difference would have been eliminated immediatly since hotter regions would now be in radiative contact with colder ones. With this exponentially-growing, de Sitter phase in the universe's early history we now have a means for resolving the horizon problem.

Instant Flat Space

Because of the exponential growth of the universe during the GUT Era, its size may well be essentially infinite for all 'practical' purposes . Estimates by Albrecht and Steinhardt suggest that each bubble region may have grown to a size of 10(3000) cm by the end of the inflationary period. Consequently, the new inflationary model predicts that the content of the universe must be almost exactly the 'critical mass' since the sizes of each of these bubble regions are almost infinite in extent. The universe is, for all conceivable observations, exactly Euclidean (infinite and flat in geometry) and destined to expand for all eternity to come. Since we have only detected at most 10 percent of the critical mass in the form of luminous matter, this suggests that 10 times as much matter exists in our universe than is currently detectable. Of course, if the universe is essentially infinite this raises the ghastly spectre of the eventual annihilation of all organic and inorganic matter some 10(32) years from now because of proton decay.

In spite of its many apparent successes, even the new inflationary universe model is not without its problems. Although it does seem to provide explainations for several cosmological enigmas, it does not provide a convincing way to create galaxies. Those fluctuations in the density of matter that do survive the inflationary period are so dense that they eventually collapse into galaxy-sized blackholes! Neither the precise way in which the transition to ordinary Hubbel expansion occurs nor the duration of the inflationary period are well determined.

If the inflationary cosmologies can be made to answer each of these issues satisfactorily we may have, as J. Richard Gott III has suggested, a most remarkable model of the universe where an almost infinite number of 'bubble universes' each having nearly infinite size, coexist in the same 4-dimensional spacetime; all of these bubble universes having been brought into existence at the same instant of creation. This is less troublesome than one might suspect since, if our universe is actually infinite as the available data suggests, so too was it infinite even at its moment of birth! It is even conceivable that the universe is 'percolating' with new bubble universes continually coming into existence. Our entire visible universe, out to the most distant quasar, would be but one infinitessimal patch within one of these bubble regions. Do these other universes have galaxies, stars, planets and living creatures statistically similar to those in our universe? We may never know. These other universes, born of the same paroxicism of Creation as our own, are forever beyond our scrutiny but obviously not our imaginations!

Beyond The Beginning...

Finally, what of the period before Grand Unification? We may surmise that at higher temperatures than the GUT Era, even the supermassive Higgs and Leptoquark bosons become massless and at long last we arrive at a time when the gravitational interaction is united with the weak, electromagnetic and strong forces. Yet, our quest for an understanding of the origins of the universe remains incomplete since gravity has yet to be brought into unity with the remaining forces on a theoretical basis. This last step promises to be not only the most difficult one to take on the long road to unification but also appears to hold the greatest promise for shedding light on some of the most profound mysteries of the physical world. Even now, a handful of theorists around the world are hard at work on a theory called Supergravity which unites the force carriers (photons, gluons, gravitons and the weak interaction bosons) with the particles that they act on (quarks, electrons etc). Supergravity theory also predicts the existence of new particles called photinos and gravitinos. There is even some speculation that the photinos may fill the entire universe and account for the unseen 'missing' matter that is necessary to give the universe the critical mass required to make it exactly Euclidean. The gravitinos, on the other hand, prevent calculations involving the exchange of gravitons from giving infinite answers for problems where the answers are known to be perfectly finite. Hitherto, these calculations did not include the affects of the gravitinos.

Perhaps during the next decade, more of the details of the last stage of Unification will be hammered out at which time the entire story of the birth of our universe can be told. This is, indeed, an exciting time to be living through in human history. Will future generations forever envy us our good fortune, to have witnessed in our lifetimes the unfolding of the first comprehensive theory of Existence?

In the Mandelbrot set, nature (or is it mathematics) provides us with a powerful visual counterpart of the musical idea of 'theme and variation': the shapes are repeated everywhere, yet each repetition is somewhat different. It would have been impossible to discover this property of iteration if we had been reduced to hand calculation, and I think that no one would have been sufficiently bright or ingenious to 'invent' this rich and complicated theme and variations. It leaves us no way to become bored, because new things appear all the time, and no way to become lost, because familiar things come back time and time again. Because this constant novelty, this set is not truly fractal by most definitions; we may call it a borderline fractal, a limit fractal that contains many fractals. Compared to actual fractals, its structurs are more numerous, its harmonies are richer, and its unexpectedness is more unexpected
Benoit Mandelbrot






MANDELBROT SET



As mentioned earlier, no matter what the value of the complex parameter c is, in the iteration of the complex quadratic map there is a unique trapping set Tc and a corresponding escape set Ec. The Julia set (Jc) is the boundary between the set Tc and the set Ec. The Mandelbrot set is an answer to the following kind of enquiry. Of the infinite number of possible Julia sets that exists, is there any organizing principle that classifies these Julia sets.

The key results for this classification of Julia sets were already there in the works of Julia and Fatou who knew about the topological dichotomy in the Julia set. The result states that for any choice of the complex parameter c the associated Julia set Jc and the trapping set Tc are either topologically connected (severely deformed circles) or totally disconnected (generalized Cantor dust like).

This was indeed the key result that clued Mandelbrot, in 1979, to visualize a set in the complex parameter space c which is called the Mandelbrot set. The Mandelbrot set consists of all values of c that have connected Julia sets. Picking value of c that is outside the Mandelbrot set, and iterating the equation to obtain the Jc for this particular choice of c gives a disconnected Julia set.

Note important , as it is, the classification of Julia set in terms of disconnected sets, this still doesn't allow one to visualize the shape of the set of points, in the parameter space, for which the Julia set is connected. The genius is in the realization of the interrelation between the above mentioned dichotomy and in the long term behavior of the critical point.

The computer graphical renderings of Mandelbrot set is made possible by this important fact which states -- The trapping set Tc is connected if and only if the critical orbit is bounded. This definition makes it possible to draw a portrait of the Mandelbrot set.

For each complex number c, a sequence of iterates Zn is defined by 3. The complex number c is a member of the Mandelbrot set if and only if |Zn| is finite for all values of n. The bars indicate the magnitude of Zn given by Zn = Ö(Xn2 + Yn2) where Xn is the real component and Yn the imaginary component of Zn. The point, in the complex parameter space, is colored white if the orbit is unbounded for that particular value of c and is colored black if the orbits are bounded.

The figure shown below is the Mandelbrot set (in black). It extends from the cusp of the cardoid at Re c = 0.25 to the tip of the tail at Re c = -2 along the real axis and from Im c = -1.25 to Im c = 1.25 along the imaginary axis.




Monochrome Mandelbrot Set Portrait

The basic algorithm to generate the Mandelbrot set is as follows. For each pixel c, start with Z = 0. Iterate the above equation up to N times, exiting if |Z| gets large. If you finish the loop, the point is probably inside the Mandelbrot set. If you exit, the point is outside and can be colored according to how many iterations were completed. You can exit if |Z| > 2, since if Z gets this big it will go to infinity. The maximum number of iterations, N, can be selected as desired, for instance 200. Larger values of N will give sharper detail but take longer.

A note about why we start from Z0 = 0. Zero is the critical point of Mandelbrot equation given by 2. That is, a point where d/dz (Z2 + c) = 0. Critical points are important because by a result of Fatou: every attracting cycle (Tc) for a polynomial or rational function attracts at least one critical point. Thus, testing the critical point shows if there is any stable attractive cycle. For the case of equation with multiple critical points, all the critical points must be tested.



DETAILS



For the sake of clarity the largest cardoid (heart) shaped central region of the Mandelbrot set will be referred to as the main body of the Mandelbrot set (M1 -- the region labeled 1 in the figure(3) below). All other pieces that are attached to the main body will be referred to as the buds. The largest bud that is attached to the main body (along the real axis) will be called the M2 bud (bud labeled 2 in figure(3) below). The main body of the Mandelbrot set intersects the real axis at Âc = 0.25 and Âc = -0.75. Extending the stability analysis criteria discussed for the case logistic equation, it is easy to see that the fixed point of the complex quadratic iterator is stable along the real axis for precisely the interval mentioned above.

The determination of the boundary of the main body of the Mandelbrot set relies on the realization that any value of the complex parameter picked from within the main body of the Mandelbrot set the corresponding Julia set is a boundary between the Escape set and the trapping set of the stable fixed point of the quadratic map. The boundary of the main body defines the locus of points (in the parameter space) for which the fixed point is indifferent, that is, the modulus of the derivative of the map about the fixed point is exactly equal to 1. Using this fact one can determine the explicit expression for the outline of the M-set's main body.

If z is the fixed point of complex quadratic map, it follows that z satisfies the equation z2 - z + c = 0. The derivative of the map about the fixed point z is given by 2z which in polar coordinates can be expressed as 2z = reif. Combining these two equations, and solving for c, we obtain
c = 1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2
r eif - 1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4
r2 e2if
(1)

Note, for the value of r < 1 the above equation determines the points inside the main body of the Mandelbrot set and r = 1 gives the bondary of M1. The above equation is the parametrization of the curve in the complex plane for 0 £ f < 2p. Thus, is explicitly seen as an equation of cardoid when expressed as
Âc = cos(f)/2 - cos(2f)/4

Ác = sin(f)/2 - sin(2f)/4
(2)

by equating the real and imaginary parts of the equation.

It turns out, that at the parameter values, f = 2p/k, where k = 2, 3, 4, 5 ¼, one of the main buds of the Mandelbrot set is attached to M1 set. Moreover, the period of the attractive cycles that belong to these buds is given by the number k in 2p/k. Also, there is another amazing fact about the arrangement of the buds. Two given buds of periods p and q at the cardoid detemine the period of the largest bud in between them as p+q. (This is illustrated for the case of p = 2 and q = 3 in figure(3) below). Similar rules are true for buds on buds.




Figure 3: The buds of the Mandelbrot set corresponding to Julia sets that bound the basins of attraction (trapping sets) of periodic orbits. The numbers in the figure indicate the periods of these orbits.


Figure 4: The plot of equation (2) which defines the boundary of the main body (M1) of the Mandelbrot set and the numbers indicate the periodicity of the buds that attach to the main body of the Mandelbrot set and the point where they attach to the main body of the Mandelbrot set.



The above two remarkable property corresponding to the periodicity of the bud was the reason for indexing the buds attached to the main body of the M-set as Mn. Thus, from the above argument the period 2 bud is attached at an angle p (setting k = 2 in f = 2p/k), similarly period 3 is the attached at f = 120 and so on. Figure(4) above shows the buds of the Mandelbrot set corresponding to Julia sets that bound basins of attraction of periodic orbits. The numbers in the figure indicate the periods of these orbits.



MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF CHOLESTEROL BIOSYNTHESIS REGULATION IN THE CELL

*Ratushny A.V., Ignatieva E.V., Matushkin Yu.G., Likhoshvai V.A.

Institute of Cytology and Genetics SB RAS, Russia

e-mail:ratushny@bionet.nsc.ru

*Corresponding author,

Keywords: gene network, cholesterol, regulation, mathematical model, computer analysis

Resume

Motivation:

An adequate mathematical model of the complex nonlinear gene network regulating cholesterol synthesis in the cell is necessary for investigating its possible function modes and determining optimal strategies of its correction, therapeutic included.

Results:

Dynamic model of function of the gene network regulating cholesterol synthesis in the cell is constructed. The model is described in terms of elementary processes—biochemical reactions. The optimal set of parameters of the model is determined. Patterns of the system behavior under different conditions are simulated numerically.

Introduction

Cholesterol, an amphipathic lipid, is an essential structural component of cell membranes and outer lipoprotein layer of blood serum. In addition, cholesterol is a precursor of several other steroids, namely, corticosteroids, sex hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D. Cholesterol is synthesized in many tissues from acetyl-CoA and its main fraction in blood serum resides with low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Free cholesterol is removed from the tissues with involvement of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and transported to the liver to be transformed into bile acids. Its major pathological role is in serving as a factor causing atherosclerosis of vital cerebral arteries, heart muscle, and other organs. Typical of coronary atherosclerosis is a high ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol [Marry R. et al., 1993]. Haploid and diploid versions of the dynamic model of function of the gene network regulating cholesterol synthesis in the cell are constructed in the work. The models are described in terms of elementary processes—biochemical reactions. The optimal set of parameters of the model allowing the calculations to comply with the published experimental data is determined through numerical experiments. Patterns of the system dynamic behavior under different conditions are simulated numerically. The results obtained are compared with the available experimental data.

Cholesterol biosynthesis and its regulation

Approximately half of the cholesterol amount present in the organism is formed through biosynthesis (about 500 mg/day) [Marry R. et al., 1993], while the other half is consumed with food. The main part of cholesterol is synthesized in the liver (~ 80% of the total cholesterol produced), intestines (~ 10%), and skin (~ 5%) [Klimov & Nikul’cheva, 1999].

Acetyl-CoA is the source of all the carbon atoms composing the cholesterol molecule. The main stages of cholesterol biosynthesis are described in the GeneNet database.

Cholesterol regulates its own synthesis and the synthesis of LDL receptors at the level of transcription through a negative feedback mechanism [Wang et al., 1994]. A decrease in the cell cholesterol content stimulates SRP (sterol regulated protease)- catalyzed proteolysis of the N-terminal fragment of SREBP (sterol regulatory element- binding protein), bound to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. On leaving the ER membrane, SREBP migrates to the cell nucleus to bind the so-called sterol regulatory element (SRE), residing in the promoter of the receptor gene, thereby switching on the receptor synthesis. In addition, SREBP activates the gene of synthase of hydroxymethyl glutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase [Klimov & Nikul’cheva, 1999] as well as farnesyl diphosphate synthase and squalene synthase syntheses. Several studies have demonstrated rather fast effect of cholesterol on the reductase activity, unexplainable by the mere effect on the rate of enzyme synthesis. HMG-CoA reductase may be either active or inactive. Phosphorylation- dephosphorylation reactions provide for the transitions from one state into the other [Marry R. et al., 1993].

The main factors affecting the cholesterol balance at the cell level [Marry R. et al., 1993] are shown in Fig. 1.



Figure 1. Factors affecting the cholesterol balance at the cell level: C, cholesterol; CE, cholesterol esters; ACAT, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase; LCAT, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase; A1, apoprotein A1; LDL, low density lipoproteins; VLDL, very low density lipoproteins, HDL, high density lipoproteins; (- ), inhibition of cholesterol synthesis; and (+) ACAT activation [Marry R. et al., 1993].

Cell cholesterol content increases if (1) specific LDL receptors bind cholesterol-containing lipoproteins; (2) cholesterol-containing lipoproteins are bound without receptors; (3) free cholesterol, contained in cholesterol-rich lipoproteins is bound by cell membranes; (4) cholesterol is synthesized; and (5) cholesterol ester hydrolase- catalyzed hydrolysis of cholesterol esters takes place.

Cell cholesterol content decreases if (1) cholesterol passes from membranes into cholesterol-poor lipoproteins, in particular LDL3 or LDL synthesized de novo (lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase promotes this transition); (2) ACAT-catalyzed cholesterol esterification takes place; and (3) cholesterol is used for synthesizing other steroids, in particular, hormones or bile acids in the liver [Marry R. et al., 1993].

Methods and algorithms

A generalized chemical kinetic approach [Bazhan et al., 1995] was used for the simulation. A blockwise formalization was used, that is, each process is separated in an individual block and described independently of the other processes. A block is a simulation quantum, and its formal structure is completely described with the following three vector components: (1) X, the list of dynamic variables; (2) P, the list of constants; and (3) F, type of the right part of the system dX/dt = F(X, P) determining the rule these dynamic variables change with time. Four types of blocks are used to describe the processes in the model, namely:



Successive application of the blockwise approach to description of biological systems is based on the law of summation of the rates of elementary processes while uniting them in a general scheme of the simulated object development. The method of Gear [Gear, 1971] was used for numerical integration of the set of differential equations.

Results

Mathematical model

The mathematical model of intracellular cholesterol biosynthesis regulation comprises 65 kinetic blocks, 40 dynamic variables, and 93 reaction constants. The diploid model comprises 72 kinetic blocks, 44 dynamic variables, and 130 reaction constants. Experimental data, partially listed in table below, were used for the initial evaluation of certain parameters of enzymatic reactions with the system.

Table. Some constants of enzyme reactions

Enzyme
Substrate
Organism
Organ
Kc, sec- 1 Km, mM
HMG-CoA reductase HMG-CoA Rattus norvegicus [Gil et al., 1981] Liver 980
(-)

HMG-CoA reductase HMG-CoA Rattus norvegicus [Kleinsek & Porter, 1979] Liver (-)
0.0169

HMG-CoA reductase HMG-CoA Rattus norvegicus [Sugano et al., 1978] Intestine (-)
0.0417

HMG-CoA synthase Acetyl-CoA
Acetoacetyl-CoA
Gallus gallus (hen) [Reed et al., 1975] Liver (-)

(-)
0.1? 0.7

<0.005

HMG-CoA synthase Acetyl-CoA Homo sapiens [Rokosz et al., 1994] Adrenal (-)
0.029

Acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase Acetoacetyl-CoA
CoA
Bos taurus (calf) [Huth et al., 1975] Liver (-)

(-)
0.01

0.025

Acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase Acetoacetyl-CoA
CoA
Gram-negative bacteria [Kim & Copeland 1997] 2.38e+4

2.38e+4
0.042

0.056

Presqualene synthase Farnesyl diphosphate Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) [Sasiak & Rilling, 1988] (-)
0.03

Geranyltransferase Geranyl PP
Isopentyl PP
Homo sapiens [Barnard & Popjak 1981] Liver 40.7

40.7
4.4e-4

9.4e-4

Lanosterol synthase (R,S)-squalene-2,3-oxide Saccharomyces cerevisiae [Balliano et al., 1992] (-)
0.035

ACAT-1 Oleoyl-CoA
Cholesterol
Homo sapiens (Cricetulus griseus)[Chang et al., 1998] Ovary (-)
7.4е-3

Bile acid hydrolase Taurocholate Lactobacillus sp. (bacteria) [Lundeen & Savage, 1990] 1900
0.76


Other published data were used for evaluating parameters of the model, in particular [Klimov & Nikul’cheva, 1999]:

Fasting LDL concentration in adult human blood serum CLDL = 200- 300 mg/dl.

The average number of unesterified and esterified cholesterol molecules per one LDL particle QUEC = 475 and QEC = 1310.

LDL half-life in blood of healthy humans t 1/2 = 2.5 days; therefore, kLDLutil. = ln(2)/t 1/2 =3.21*10-6 sec-1.

Total number of LDL receptors per one cell at 37° C QLDLR = 15,000- 70,000.

Lifespan of LDL receptors t = 1- 2 days; therefore, kLDLRutil. = 1/t ~ 7.72e - 6 sec- 1.

LDL receptor recyclization span t ~ 20 min.

The values of the rest parameters of the model were determined through numerical experiments.



Figure 2. Kinetics of main components of the system regulating cholesterol biosynthesis in the cell.

Results of calculations

The results obtained while simulating the cell response to a twofold increase in LDL particle content in blood serum (Fig. 2, b) illustrate the model performance. The number of receptors bound to LDL increases (d); unbound, decreases (e). Intracellular concentrations of free cholesterol (a) and its esters (c) increase. Free cholesterol binds the protease (SRP), preventing SREBP-1 formation (f). Productions of enzymes involved in the internal cellular cholesterol synthesis (HMG-CoA reductase; g), LDL receptors, and intermediate low-molecular-weight components (mevalonic acid, h; squalene, i) are stopped. Cholesterol concentration in the cell is decreasing. No further influence on the system provided, it returns to the initial state. A complete recovering requires about 15 h.

In future, we plan to perform computer stimulation of recombination process in diploid cell, by modelling interactions between alleles of genes responsible for cholesterol biosynthesis.

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Galina Chirikova for translation of the manuscript into English and to N.A. Kolchanov for fruitful discussions. The work was supported by National Russian Program "Human Genome" (No 106), Integrational Science Project of SB RAS "Modelling of basic genetical processes and systems".

References

R. Marry, D. Grenner, P. Meies, V. Roduell, "Human Biochemistry", Moscow, "Mir", (1993).
A.N. Klimov and N.G. Nikul’cheva, "Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism and Its Disturbances" St. Petersburg: Piter Kom. (1999).
X. Wang, R. Seto, M. S. Brown et al., "SREBP-1, a membrane-bound transcription factor released by sterol regulated proteolises" Cell, 77, 53 (1994).UI: 94208061
S.I. Bazhan, V.A. Likhoshvai and O.E. Belova, "Theoretical Analysis of the Regulation of Interferon Expression during Priming and Blocking" J. Theor. Biol., 175, 149 (1995).UI: 96007769
C. W. Gear, "The automatic integration of ordinary differential equations", Communs ACM, 14, 176 (1971).
G. Gil, M. Sitges, and F.G. Hegardt, "Purification and properties of rat liver hydrohymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase phosphatases" Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 663, No. 1, 211 (1981).UI: 82044857
D.A. Kleinsek, J.W. Porter, "An alternate method of purification and properties of rat liver 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase" J. Biol. Chem., 254, No. 16, 7591 (1979).UI: 79239331
M. Sugano, H. Okamatsu, and T. Ide, "Properties of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase in villous and crypt cells of the rat small intestine" Agr. Biol. Chem., 42, No. 11, 2009 (1978).
W.D. Reed, K.D. Clinkenbeard, and M.D. Lane, "Molecular and catalytic properties of mitochondrial (ketogenic) 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase of liver" J. Biol. Chem., 250, No. 8, 3117 (1975).UI: 75133544
L.L. Rokosz, D.A. Boulton, E.A. Butkiewicz, G. Sanyal, M.A. Cueto, P.A. Lachance, and J.D. Hermes, "Human cytoplasmic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase: expression, purification, and characterization of recombinant wild-type and Cys129 mutant enzymes" Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 312, No. 1, 1 (1994).UI: 94304197
W. Huth, R. Jonas, I. Wunderlich, and W. Seubert, "On the mechanism of ketogenesis and its control. Purification, kinetic mechanism and regulation of different forms of mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolases from ox liver" Eur. J. Biochem., 59, No. 2, 475 (1975).UI: 76091931
S.A. Kim and L. Copeland, "Acetyl coenzyme A acetyltransferase of Rhizobium sp. (Cicer) strain CC 1192" Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 63, No. 9, 3432 (1997).
K. Sasiak and H.C. Rilling "Purification to homogeneity and some properties of squalene synthetase" Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 260, No. 2, 622 (1988).UI: 88132877
G.F. Barnard and G. Popjak, "Human liver prenyltransferase and its characterization" Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 661, No. 1, 87 (1981).UI: 82046705
G. Balliano, F. Viola, M. Ceruti, L. Cattel, "Characterization and partial purification of squalene-2,3-oxide cyclase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae" Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 293, No. 1, 122 (1992).UI: 92117685
C.C.Y. Chang, C.-Y.G. Lee, E.T. Chang, C.J. C.ruz, M.C. Levesque, T.-Y. Chang "Recombinant acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) purified to essential homogeneity utilizes cholesterol in mixed micelles or in vesicles in a highly cooperative manner" Journal of Biological Chemistry, 273(52), 35132 1998.UI: 99074294
S.G. Lundeen and D.C. Savage, "Characterization and purification of bile salt hydrolase from Lactobacillus sp. strain 100-100" J. Bacteriol., 172 No. 8, 4171 (1990).UI: 90330517

Vacuum Energy Density, or How Can Nothing Weigh Something?
Recently two different groups have measured the apparent brightness of supernovae with redshifts near z = 1. Based on this data the old idea of a cosmological constant is making a comeback.

Einstein Static Cosmology
Einstein's original cosmological model was a static, homogeneous model with spherical geometry. The gravitational effect of matter caused an acceleration in this model which Einstein did not want, since at the time the Universe was not known to be expanding. Thus Einstein introduced a cosmological constant into his equations for General Relativity. This term acts to counteract the gravitational pull of matter, and so it has been described as an anti-gravity effect.

Why does the cosmological constant behave this way?

This term acts like a vacuum energy density, an idea which has become quite fashionable in high energy particle physics models since a vacuum energy density of a specific kind is used in the Higgs mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking. Indeed, the inflationary scenario for the first picosecond after the Big Bang proposes that a fairly large vacuum energy density existed during the inflationary epoch. The vacuum energy density must be associated with a negative pressure because:

The vacuum energy density must be constant because there is nothing for it to depend on.
If a piston capping a cylinder of vacuum is pulled out, producing more vacuum, the vacuum within the cylinder then has more energy which must have been supplied by a force pulling on the piston.
If the vacuum is trying to pull the piston back into the cylinder, it must have a negative pressure, since a positive pressure would tend to push the piston out.
The magnitude of the negative pressure needed for energy conservation is easily found to be P = -u = -rho*c2 where P is the pressure, u is the vacuum energy density, and rho is the equivalent mass density using E = m*c2.

But in General Relativity, pressure has weight, which means that the gravitational acceleration at the edge of a uniform density sphere is not given by

g = GM/R2 = (4*pi/3)*G*rho*R

but is rather given by
g = (4*pi/3)*G*(rho+3P/c2)*R

Now Einstein wanted a static model, which means that g = 0, but he also wanted to have some matter, so rho > 0, and thus he needed P < 0. In fact, by setting
rho(vacuum) = 0.5*rho(matter)

he had a total density of 1.5*rho(matter) and a total pressure of -0.5*rho(matter)*c2 since the pressure from ordinary matter is essentially zero (compared to rho*c2). Thus rho+3P/c2 = 0 and the gravitational acceleration was zero,
g = (4*pi/3)*G*(rho(matter)-2*rho(vacuum))*R = 0

allowing a static Universe.

Einstein's Greatest Blunder
However, there is a basic flaw in this Einstein static model: it is unstable - like a pencil balanced on its point. For imagine that the Universe grew slightly: say by 1 part per million in size. Then the vacuum energy density stays the same, but the matter energy density goes down by 3 parts per million. This gives a net negative gravitational acceleration, which makes the Universe grow even more! If instead the Universe shrank slightly, one gets a net positive gravitational acceleration, which makes it shrink more! Any small deviation gets magnified, and the model is fundamentally flawed.

In addition to this flaw of instability, the static model's premise of a static Universe was shown by Hubble to be incorrect. This led Einstein to refer to the cosmological constant as his greatest blunder, and to drop it from his equations. But it still exists as a possibility -- a coefficient that should be determined from observations or fundamental theory.

The Quantum Expectation
The equations of quantum field theory describing interacting particles and anti-particles of mass M are very hard to solve exactly. With a large amount of mathematical work it is possible to prove that the ground state of this system has an energy that is less than infinity. But there is no obvious reason why the energy of this ground state should be zero. One expects roughly one particle in every volume equal to the Compton wavelength of the particle cubed, which gives a vacuum density of

rho(vacuum) = M4c3/h3 = 1013 [M/proton mass]4 gm/cc

For the highest reasonable elementary particle mass, the Planck mass of 20 micrograms, this density is more than 1091 gm/cc. So there must be a suppression mechanism at work now that reduces the vacuum energy density by at least 120 orders of magnitude.
A Bayesian Argument
We don't know what this mechanism is, but it seems reasonable that suppression by 122 orders of magnitude, which would make the effect of the vacuum energy density on the Universe negligible, is just as probable as suppression by 120 orders of magnitude. And 124, 126, 128 etc. orders of magnitude should all be just as probable as well, and all give a negligible effect on the Universe. On the other hand suppressions by 118, 116, 114, etc. orders of magnitude are ruled out by the data. Unless there are data to rule out suppression factors of 122, 124, etc. orders of magnitude then the most probable value of the vacuum energy density is zero.

The Dicke Coincidence Argument
If the supernova data and the CMB data are correct, then the vacuum density is about 75% of the total density now. But at redshift z=2, which occurred 11 Gyr ago for this model if Ho = 65, the vacuum energy density was only 10% of the total density. And 11 Gyr in the future the vacuum density will be 96% of the total density. Why are we alive coincidentally at the time when the vacuum density is in the middle of its fairly rapid transition from a negligible fraction to the dominant fraction of the total density? If, on the other hand, the vacuum energy density is zero, then it is always 0% of the total density and the current epoch is not special.

What about Inflation?
During the inflationary epoch, the vacuum energy density was large: around 1071 gm/cc. So in the inflationary scenario the vacuum energy density was once large, and then was suppressed by a large factor. So non-zero vacuum energy densities are certainly possible.

Observational Limits
Solar System
One way to look for a vacuum energy density is to study the orbits of particles moving in the gravitational field of known masses. Since we are looking for a constant density, its effect will be greater in a large volume system. The Solar System is the largest system where we really know what the masses are, and we can check for the presence of a vacuum energy density by a careful test of Kepler's Third Law: that the period squared is proportional to the distance from the Sun cubed. The centripetal acceleration of a particle moving around a circle of radius R with period P is

a = R*(2*pi/P)2

which has to be equal to the gravitational acceleration worked out above:
a = R*(2*pi/P)2 = g = GM(Sun)/R2 - (8*pi/3)*G*rho(vacuum))*R

If rho(vacuum) = 0 then we get
(4*pi2/GM)*R3 = P2

which is Kepler's Third Law. But if the vacuum density is not zero, then one gets a fractional change in period of
dP/P = (4*pi/3)*R3*rho(vacuum)/M(sun) = rho(vacuum)/rho(bar)

where the average density inside radius R is rho(bar) = M/((4*pi/3)*R3). This can only be checked for planets where we have an independent measurement of the distance from the Sun. The Voyager spacecraft allowed very precise distances to Uranus and Neptune to be determined, and Anderson et al. (1995, ApJ, 448, 885) found that dP/P = (1+/-1) parts per million at Neptune's distance from the Sun. This gives us a Solar System limit of
rho(vacuum) = (5+/-5)*10-18 < 2*10-17 gm/cc


The cosmological constant will also cause a precession of the perihelion of a planet. Cardona and Tejeiro (1998, ApJ, 493, 52) claimed that this effect could set limits on the vacuum density only ten or so times higher than the critical density, but their calculation appears to be off by a factor of 3 trillion. The correct advance of the perihelion is 3*rho(vacuum)/rho(bar) cycles per orbit. Because the ranging data to the Viking landers on Mars is so precise, a very good limit on the vacuum density is obtained:

rho(vacuum) < 2*10-19 gm/cc


Milky Way Galaxy
In larger systems we cannot make part per million verifications of the standard model. In the case of the Sun's orbit around the Milky Way, we only say that the vacuum energy density is less than half of the average matter density in a sphere centered at the Galactic Center that extends out to the Sun's distance from the center. If the vacuum energy density were more than this, there would be no centripetal acceleration of the Sun toward the Galactic Center. But we compute the average matter density assuming that the vacuum energy density is zero, so to be conservative I will drop the "half" and just say

rho(vacuum) < (3/(4*pi*G))(v/R)2 = 3*10-24 gm/cc

for a circular velocity v = 220 km/sec and a distance R = 8.5 kpc.

Large Scale Geometry of the Universe
The best limit on the vacuum energy density comes from the largest possible system: the Universe as a whole. The vacuum energy density leads to an accelerating expansion of the Universe. If the vacuum energy density is greater than the critical density, then the Universe will not have gone through a very hot dense phase when the scale factor was zero (the Big Bang). We know the Universe went through a hot dense phase because of the light element abundances and the properties of the cosmic microwave background. These require that the Universe was at least a billion times smaller in the past than it is now, and this limits the vacuum energy density to

rho(vacuum) < rho(critical) = 8*10-30 gm/cc

The recent supernova results suggest that the vacuum energy density is close to this limit: rho(vacuum) = 0.75*rho(critical) = 6*10-30 gm/cc. The ratio of rho(vacuum) to rho(critical) is called lambda. This expresses the vacuum energy density on the same scale used by the density parameter Omega. Thus the supernova data suggest that lambda = 0.75. If we use OmegaM to denote the ratio of ordinary matter density to critical density, then the Universe is open if OmegaM + lambda is less than one, closed if it is greater than one, and flat if it is exactly one. If lambda is greater than zero, then the Universe will expand forever unless the matter density OmegaM is much larger than current observations suggest. For lambda greater than zero, even a closed Universe can expand forever.



The figure above shows the regions in the (OmegaM, lambda) plane that are suggested by the current data. The green region in the upper left is ruled out because there would not be a Big Bang in this region, leaving the CMB spectrum unexplained. The red and green ellipses with yellow overlap region show the LBL team's allowed parameters (red) and the Hi-Z SN Team's allowed parameters (green). The blue wedge shows the parameter space region that gives the observed Doppler peak position in the angular power spectrum of the CMB. The purple region is consistent with the CMB Doppler peak position and the supernova data. The big pink ellipse shows the possible systematic errors in the supernova data.


The figure above shows the scale factor as a function of time for several different models. The colors of the curves are keyed to the colors of the circular dots in the (OmegaM, lambda) plane Figure. The purple curve is for the favored OmegaM = 0.25, lambda = 0.75 model. The blue curve is the Steady State model, which has lambda = 1 but no Big Bang.

Because the time to reach a given redshift is larger in the OmegaM = 0.25, lambda = 0.75 model than in the OmegaM = 1 model, the angular size distance and luminosity distance are larger in the lambda model, as shown in the space-time diagram below:




The OmegaM = 1 model is on the left, the OmegaM = 0.25, lambda = 0.75 model is on the right. The green line across each space-time diagram shows the time when the redshift was z = 1, which corresponds to approximately to the most distant of the supernovae observed to date. Using a ruler you can see that the angular size distance to z = 1 is 1.36 times larger in the right hand diagram, which makes the observed supernovae 1.84 times fainter (0.66 magnitudes fainter).

Conclusion
In the past, we have had only upper limits on the vacuum density and philosophical arguments based on the Dicke coincidence problem and Bayesian statistics that suggested that the most likely value of the vacuum density was zero. Now we have the supernova data that suggests that the vacuum energy density is greater than zero. This result is very important if true. We need to confirm it using other techniques, such as the MAP satellite which will observe the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background with angular resolution and sensitivity that are sufficient to measure the vacuum energy density.


Ned Wright's Home Page

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Cosmic Radio Signals can be polarized at 91mhz (fm); 160mhz (vhf); 610
mhz ( on channel 78uhf-tv) by keying a cb microphone over a radio receiver set on these
radio channels with your home equipment.
These are known cosmic radio sources from outerspace from
Annual Review of Astrophysics and Astronomy 1966 editor Leo Goldberg.
Facts : A lot of the static snow that you recieve is your non cable
uhf tv; is cosmic radio signals......many elements naturally emitt
radio pulses whern excited;
You can polarize these signals with CB radio Microphone
buy keying the transmitting CB microphone over the speaker of a
recieving radio set at 91 mhz..(91fm)..160 mhz..(160 vhf radio)..and
transmit the spacey sound you hear to a recieving TV set at channel
78 UHF tv.....then you will see a ATT type of symbol..and see the
oscillations and fluctutations of the cosmic radio signal that has
been just polarized.....personally I think 160 vhf radio.....is
artifically generated.....since it oscillates odd.....if intelligent
life has learned to genrate radio signals within our galaxy....the
odds are in our favor.we are recieving them.as they recieve our
signals from 50+ years ago.......that energy is bouncing off our
heads now. I have recieved a strange CBS eye symbol on my TV after I
did this, It wasn't CBS's thought..it was gold on the edge, with a
green center eye and purple round about the eye..but for this
happened a circular rainbow image formed.then out of the cloud the
CBS eye appeared.the eye looked like a lizards eye.....real spooky.I

called CBS in NY, and they don't know why they pick that symbol..(~)

after some research.there was a " CBS" electron gun.made for TV

picture tubes in

the 1950's..so maybe back in the early days of television..tv

engineers must have recieved this same signal.

God Bless You

Br Dan Izzo
512 Onondaga Ace
Syracuse, NY 13207

1-315-472-5088

 
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At October 22, 2005 at 5:21 PM, Blogger Br Dan Izzo said...

10/22/2005 note: contribution in part 2 of The Gravitational Instability Cosmological Theory was made by Ezra Carducci 84 deceased Nov 2004 # 315-637-8621 Manlius NY in 2001 , named in Nobel Nomination prior to death.
suspected foul play same as Father Byrne 2001

 
At October 22, 2005 at 5:35 PM, Blogger Br Dan Izzo said...

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United States Patent Application 20050027316
Kind Code A1
Izzo, Daniel Robert February 3, 2005
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Resurrection burial tomb

Abstract
A Resurrection Burial Tomb includes a means to preserve and revive Human Beings and provide power and power systems for the same, comprising of a container of preservation means, holding the suspended dead person's body and connected to electrical and energy apparatus systems contained in the Resurrection tomb and robotic machine workers that help maintain and work to revive the suspended Human Being; wherein the process provides power and security from death to living Human Beings being useful and novel, producing a less savage empowered child culture and machine parents.

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Inventors: Izzo, Daniel Robert; (Syracuse, NY)
Correspondence Name and Address: Reverend Daniel Robert Izzo
512 Onondaga Ave
Syracuse
NY
13207
US

Serial No.: 161974
Series Code: 10
Filed: June 4, 2002
U.S. Current Class: 607/1
U.S. Class at Publication: 607/001
Intern'l Class: A61N 001/00

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Claims
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1) I the Reverend Daniel Robert Izzo, hereby claim the, "A Resurrection Burial Tomb" that is a novel means to revive a dead person's body from the grave; and providing a 1 little more security from an impending death; will preserve and prevent the human body from decay and will prolong the human life and tissue and return it into a conscious state, together with the means do do the same, and a means to produce energy, to do the same; comprising of: an artificial womb and a container with fluid having a crystal radio crown and antenna that connects to a radio and energy devices; wherein the deceased person is prevented from decay within said container and where energy is obtained from the radio crown that oscillates into the deceased person's nerves and brain and the entire container is within a building and tomb that is weather tight, wherein a nuclear device is used to generate electric energy and heat energy; wherein part of the dead person's bone is converted into a microprocessor and computer; wherein the computer and energy sources, drive a heart lung machine that keeps the dead person's remaining cell tissue alive, together with an artificial heart assister pump; wherein the deceased person's bone will regain consciousness, using the material of their bone and artificial and organic means consisting of human bone material; that is convertible into a computer and microprocessor, organically grown body parts; artificially grown body parts; nerves a muscles; wherein the microprocessor will oscillate of the dead person, from the said bone material; being used will oscillated of the person's life frequency; together with artificially grown nerves and olfactory nerves that grow, reconstructed nerve patterns of the deceased person; together and consisting of artificial and organically grown muscle; comprising of silicon and compounds to cause silicon and material mean to expand and contract with energy and force; and organic material; when a voltage of energy is applied; wherein the deceased person's skeleton remains, will be revived to consciousness, using collagen, a microprocessor, co version to a computer consciousness, artificial muscle that expands and contracts with energy and force, artificial nerves that will allow the dead person's skeleton remains; to independently communicate new consciousness and thoughts; wherein the said microprocessor contains elements of human bone materials that will be able to convert itself into other electric circuit patterns, by inputing the desired pattern stored in its memory; such as imputing radio, for radio circuit, imputing oscilloscope for oscilloscope circuit; wherein said microprocessor will receive and transmit input data and electric pulses, and will contain information, record data and monitor the burial tomb, comprising of a means to receive and transmit data and electric pulses; and contain information, record data and monitor, wherein said microprocessor comprises of: a sheet of flexible insulating plastic paper that contains an enlargement of specially painted and printed computer microchips; integrated electric circuits and having thousands of field effect transistors; capacitors and resistors; that was applied and formed with applied layers of paint, wherein the sheet of plastic paper is coated with a complete layer of positively doped silicon substrate that is printed and painted in an electric circuit pattern of an insulating coat of silicon dioxide paint; then an area contain the devices negatively charged electric areas, type-N, will be painted and printed; in a pattern for type-N areas, with a paint that contains silicon and germanium crystals and phosphorus with in the type-N semiconductor paint; wherein then the device's negatively charged electric areas will have extra free electrons and produces N-type, negatively charged electric current conduction; wherein then, another electric circuit pattern is then printed and painted that will conduct the P-type, positively charged electric semiconductor regions with a polysilicon paint that contains silicon, germanium, crystals and boron mixed in the paint; wherein the results of the paint leave gaps in the germanium crystal structure because there is not enough electrons to fill all of the spaces in the crystal and produces a P-type semiconductor patterned region for the device's positive electric current conduction; wherein then another layer of silicon dioxide is printed and painted in an electric circuit insulating pattern and shall have some holes for electric conduction and shall have a printed and painted aluminum or other electric conducting metal paint; applied on it in a circuit pattern and shall provide electric contacts that will receive electric data pulses of either digital inputs or analog-to-digital converter inputs and the electric contacts will provide the device's digital output or the device's digital-to-analog data output, wherein the microprocessor's input of data will be able to store the data in the device's central processing unit; the device's random access memory; and the device's read only memory and are connected together within the device's address bus; data bus; and control bus and the device's bus system connects to the device's input and output connection; wherein the device can store the data for processing and the device turns data into processed results; into actions and dip lays, wherein the enlarging of the pattern of the computer microchip electric circuit; integrated electric circuits, 100+thousands of field effect transistors; capacitors and resistors; and then applying the materials to create the same electric systems; painting and printing upon plastic paper, 100+thousand transistors; capacitors and resistors; on an altered xerography process using the aforementioned materials of plastic, silicon, silicon dioxide, polysilicon, germanium; phosphorous; boron, crystals, metal, or painting the electric circuit patterns of the I/C; microprocessor-microchip; 100+thousand transistors, capacitors, resistors, circuits in and enlarged pattern; also by lithographic printing or offset cylinders containing the material of paint and the circuit designs; or of the layer printing methods that print the materials without shorting the electric circuit, wherein the microprocessor can be altered and produce electric energy, and can be a photoelectric cell on top of the microprocessor and can be altered and have a parallel along the circuits with arsenic, wherein a photoelectric effect takes place, producing electricity; wherein processes in the Resurrection Burial Tomb, and Conscious Revival System; having interactions therein wherein; prior domestic priorities of the inventor's; cosmic radio wave crown, a Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator; a Hydraulic Leverage Engine, a Microwave Hot Water Boiler Heating System; the Zinc-Carbon Pill and Transistorized Plastic Paper Computer, the Artificial Heart Assister Pump; the Artificial Muscle Robot; and the Thermionic Electron Electric Generator and Artificial Liver Ammonia Diffuser; interact in new and improved functions that preserve the deceased person's and offer a little more security from our deaths. and electric energy, and power systems; are used as a means to provide the process; wherein a small pump will circulate blood and fluid; that is attached to the person's arteries and veins; wherein when a person's heart fails to pump properly; the automatic device will sense this dysfunction; and will begin to pump and circulate oxygenated blood and fluid properly throughout the person's body tissues, if any, wherein the pumping system is powered electrically or nuclear energy; wherein the power source to circulate and pump blood fluid is connected to the device; wherein the device is connected to a person's blood circulatory system and will maintain a fresh supply of oxygen to a deceased person's brain and body; wherein; medication and process of the Zinc-Carbon Pill electrophoresis compounds are used in the process for destroying microbes, fungi, bacteria and viral infection and clove leaf oil topical paste for herpes virus, and protect the deceased person's tissues infection; wherein an engine is used to provide the Resurrection Burial Tomb; with a power source; wherein the Hydraulic Leverage Engine is used comprising of; a gasoline combustion chamber having gas therein; a diesel compression chamber having diesel gas fuel therein; a hydraulic pneumatic engine having gas therein; and ION engine having gas therein; a heat source within said housings which interacts with gas or fuel, or an energy source to provide output, a piston connected to the output of the energy or heat source; wherein; the piston will act upon a hydraulic jack piston pump and is connected to a lever bar and the lever bar rests upon a fulcrum point and bar, wherein the lever bar rests upon a fulcrum point and bar, wherein the lever bar acts upon a set of weight load pistons that connect to a crankshaft and the crankshaft is connected to a load bearing work wheel; and wherein the output of the energy or heat source shall cause and move the effort pistons to apply a small pressure upon the hydraulic jack piston pump that in turn will apply a larger force of pressure upon the lever bar, that in turn will apply an even larger force of pressure upon the weight load pistons that connects to the crankcase and crankshaft and work wheel; so that the crankshaft, under applied pressure of the effort pistons acting upon the hydraulic jack piston pump and lever bar acting upon the weight load pistons, turns a work wheel with much more force that was initially acted upon it from the energy source or heat source but at less distance, wherein the effort multiplied by the distance from the fulcrum, (effort pistons-lever bar ) equal the weight multiplied by its distance from the fulcrum (weight load pistons), wherein the Resurrection Burial Tomb has a workable engine for the interaction process; wherein the Zinc-Carbon Pill will prevent decay of the human person, wherein the process will electrocute viruses and other microbes within a human host and will explode viruses, bacteria, fungi and other microbes, like an overloaded electric light bulb, without destroying many human cells, with the ability to increase the natural electric current and voltage of a human being, with electro-chemical compounds and a process of electrophoresis; and electrocution and electrostatic activity; comprising of; elements of; zinc and its zinc oxides; zinc sulfides and zinc acetates and other zinc elements, carbon and carbon elements and can be in the form of carbonyl and its group, carboxyl and its group, carboxyl and its group and other carbon based elements, magnesium and its compounds and group, wherein the combining of these elements increases the electrical energy of a Human Being with chemical energy and can shatter and explode viruses, bacteria, fungus and other microbes and parasites that cause diseases and cell death of a Human Being, and can be applied also externally to a Human Host with the same effect together with these elements; Zinc; Carbon; Magnesium; Electrophoresis materials; adramycin; antineoplastic; antipan; arsenic; barium and its sulfides; benzyl; benzoic acid; benzoly peroxide; carbamazephine;carbolated campor, carbolic acid; cerumenolytic; daunomycn; hydrogen peroxide; hydrochloride; keratolic acid; magnesium; mithramycn; ozone; phenol red; phenylactetic acid carboxy; phenyl carbinol; pheny ethyl alchohol; phenylactetic acid carboxy; phenyl carbinol; pheny ethyl alcohol; phenyl meruric nitrate; piperdine; permathrin; dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate; pyrethrin; piperonyl butoxide; sodium; sodium hydrogen-carbonate; sodium perborate; suger; sulfa; sulfamide; penicillin; carben carbenicillin; radio chemicals; ultra-violet rays; electric jolts; negative ions; positive ions and water; wherein combining these elements increases and amplify the electrical energy of a host human inside the tomb chambers, to a safe level, but will explode with electric energy, viruses, bacteria, funguses and other microbes and parasites without damaging many Human cells and is obtained ny chemical energy and other energy forms and the process and treatment with chemicals can be in the form of liquids, solids, powders, pastes, pill gas and electric energy forms as light radiation energy and electro-static energy absorption means to prevent decay of the deceased person's Human cell life, and wherein the means for a communication device is used from the Citizen Band Free Public Radio wave Telephone System comprising an audio input, microphone, a frequency programmer number pad to frequency crystal oscillator. a programmed radio frequency to signal number display, transmit and receive antennas. a keyboard to computer input. a speaker, a video monitor, TV monitor, a fax machine/printer, a data input and computer storage data unit, electric plug input/output, telephone line for wire service, cable input/output wire, video/audio camera that is removable, a source of communication antennas for a radio wave receiver and transmit or and propagated radio waves; wherein; the invention's Citizen Band Free Public Radio wave Telephone system's; audio input with cable wires; input amplifier, radio frequency amplifier, modulated amplifier or frequency amplifier, modulated amplifier or Frequency amplifier master oscillator, radio frequency amplifier, radio frequency amplifier; radio frequency amplifier, crystal oscillator that is programmable; antenna; pre-selection circuit; a frequency changer; intermediate frequency amplifier; frequency detector; low frequency amplifier speaker; antenna for receiver; local oscillator, will interact and function within the Resurrection Burial Tomb processes and radio crown; as a means for monitoring communication, entertainment fun and data; wherein the invention uses artificial muscles and produces electric current that is stored in the electric storage unit being maintained/operated by the "Artificial Muscle Robot" and its artificial hands having, artificial muscle that is connected to a frame with movable joints and the artificial hand is covered and protected with a material that permits movement, wherein the artificial muscle will expand and contract with force, using electric current by way of spring wires that is within the artificial muscle that is weaved and patterned and layered like a real human hand having sensors for input/output signals through a central joint palm, that has a computer brain with optical sensors and an input/output communication and receives transmits radio communication and the robot has arms with artificial hands. wherein the robot is powered by a Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator other electric input means that move and perform work of Human hands tasks can perform to maintain and work for the Resurrection Burial Tomb work functions; wherein the Hydraulic Pneumatic Engine and the "Microwave Hot Water Boiler Heating System with a thorium plated magnetron (2) energy systems, using steam from the microwave hot water boiler to drive and help turn the hydraulic pneumatic engine and electric generator wherein the Artificial Muscle Robot assists in the operation of the tomb's hydraulic pneumatic engine and microwave hot water boiler heating energy system. wherein the Lever Engine c covert 1 ton of torque into 4 tons without gear/transmission for the invention's work functions and other electric systems comprising of the Thermionic Electron Electric Generator, having a power source, cathode, cesium, thorium, container with magnetic force inside, and a high voltage anode chamber with argon gas inside for output, wherein the input of 10 watts of electric power is amplified to about 100 watts of electric power output, for energy creation, and the invention's Hydraulic Pneumatic Engine used for work functions and comprising of the Portable Nuclear Powered Engine that mitts less radiation than 3 TV sets and is used for work functions and electric power generation. wherein; the invention's rebuilding and preserving Human persons who are deceased or suspended or are being revived into normal function, uses the same means of cryogenic preservation, in the U.S. South Pole, Antarctica territory and the invention comprises of an "Artificial Womb" converted from an oxygen petrofusion machine, wherein the Hyman's cells are preserved/protected and can grown into normal function, wherein a means of a Human bone being crystallized and converted into a computer microprocessor, for an "Artificial Muscle Robot" consciousness and for some normal function. and a means for a Human person inside a container that is filled with a preservative medium that prevents decay and who is wearing a Crystal radio crown to hear the living, awaiting the day of resurrection, wherein the invention comprises of the Thermionic Electron-Electric Generator that is used to generate the invention's electric power, that comprises of; containment inside a sealed tube contain a source of input power that heats a thorium tungsten nichrome wire that is inside another sealed tube that contains cesium gas that generate electrons, wherein a thoriated platinum cathode obtains emitted electrons and emits more electrons inside a magnetic field having cobalt magnets, wherein an anode collects the electrons and sends them to a argon gas ionizer chamber having argon gas therein wherein high voltage electric is present that ionizes the radiation of the argon gas and causes electrons to rush to one electron and positively charged ions to
the other electrode and positively charged ions to the other electrode; wherein the electrons join other electrons emitted from the anode at the negative electrode as the radiation and high voltage causes an electric current within the device and sends it to the increased electric output to the invention's electric current supply wherein the invention comprises of an electric generator having radioactive cobalt 60 magnets, and depicts radioactive cobalt 60 magnets that cause electrons to move faster than iron magnets and produces more electric output per calorie than iron magnets and its output is increased by high voltage argon gas ionization inside the electric generator, wherein radioactive cobalt field structure magnets create a magnetic field; wherein coils of wire are mounted so that they can be spun around in a magnetic field with mechanical energy input; wherein the entire device is inside a vacuum tube that is filled with a gas and charged to a very high voltage wherein the radioactive cobalt 60 ionizes the gas spading the electrically neutral gas into positively charged ions and negatively charged electrons wherein; the positive ions rush to one electrode and the electrons rush to the other electrode wire, wherein this triggers an electric current from one electrode to the other, while the mechanical energy input turns the wire coil electrode and creates electrical output between the cobalt 60 magnetic field magnets wherein magnetic force and ionized gas of radioactive cobalt 60 magnets make electrons move in the wire coil generating an electric current output, and a means for the invention's electric systems connected to the invention's electric wiring that provides amplified electricity; wherein the Thermionic Electron Electric Generator are a source of amplified electric power to the invention's wiring wherein the invention comprises of devices that convert heat energy into electric current wherein the invention comprises of a Microwave Boiler, converting thorium/uranium electrons into microwave energy said magnetron microwave device, said microwave magnetron and a klystron thats cathodes and anodes are plated with thorium and uranium and whose magnets are of radioactive cobalt., wherein the invention's microwave emitting device shall be improved by plating the magnetron's electric cathode with thorium and uranium that is radioactive, the anode is of magnetizable metal, radioactive cobalt, nickel or iron and the anode is plated with radioactive metal; wherein the operation of the invention's magnetron, a high D-C potential is applied between cathode and anode, setting up a radial electric field, wherein the combined forces cause electrons to take a spiral path and when the magnetron, the electric oscillations of the magnetron resonators set up an A-C electric field across the resonator gaps, wherein the thorium and uranium metal cathode, magnetic metal anode of cobalt and plated with radioactive metal, in the magnetron sets up an increase in spiraling reactions when an electric current is applied and causes the magnetron output current to be many times the electric input of the invention's magnetron, and the invention, comprises of electric devices converting thorium uranium, cesium tungsten, nichrome, and argon gas atoms interacting and generating electron emissions into electric energy, and using mechanical energy input and obtain a greater energy output of electric energy, the invention's, Thermionic Electron-Electric Generator, that coverts a smaller energy power input into a larger electric energy output wherein; the invention's devices converting heat energy and electro magnetic energy into a larger electric energy output, wherein the invention's devices converting a smaller electric energy input into a larger heating calorie output for room tomb air radiant heat, wherein the invention's devices converting thermionic emissions into a larger radiant energy output, wherein; the invention's devices using cobalt magnets and mechanical energy together with high voltage ionized argon gas to provide an output of electric energy. wherein; the invention's devices using cobalt 60 magnets, wherein the invention's devices using rare earth elements to increase the power output, wherein the invention's devices converting electric input into mechanical output, wherein the invention's "Artificial Liver and Ammonia Diffuser" for cirrhosis treatments with blood clotting restorability; comprising of a container having an input tube containing Human Blood with toxins that is filtered with a calcium filter (2) that circulates and moves the blood/fluid with an electric pump and mixes plasma fluid input and connects into and restores blood clotting; a settling tank that connects into another calcium filter tank that then sends the filtered blood that has its clottability restored; into another tank wherein the blood is again filtered (2) and slightly heated in the unit tank where the blood is again filtered and slightly heated in the unit tank; wherein the slight heating and calcium mixes with the Human blood and causes ammonia toxins to diffuse into a vent and the blood is sent through a connecting pipe into a cooling unit and filters down to remove any extra calcium and cools the blood and fluid and sends the cleaned of toxins blood/fluid into a storage tank and a output tube for use if a Human Being and final testing to insure toxin material removal, before being used to the person in need, and said processes interact within the invention for an outcome; wherein the invention comprises of a "Portable Nuclear Powered and Electric Generator" that comprises of a Stirling type engine; wherein the invention's engine having a doubled walled capsule cylinder that is filled with helium gas and contains a floating piston at the top of the floating piston is a pellet of radioactive material that heats the helium to about 1,200 degrees F., where this very hot helium expands rapidly, then forcefully drives down the piston to the bottom of the cylinder where the temperature is almost 1,100 degrees F., lower and as the piston moves down it forces some of the gas out through a valve in the cylinder floor near the spring bellow and the floating piston acts and pushes against the upper hydraulic jack piston and the upper hydraulic jack piston will push against the helium reservoir and will compress the helium gas and pushes against the helium reservoir and will compress the hydraulic fluid reservoir tat will force the hydraulic jack plumps lower hydraulic pistons that will force and act upon a larger load than was or b acted upon it, and will push this force against the crankcase that will turn and urn the load bearing work wheel and the invention's oil pan is filled with oil and the work wheel will turn an electric generator and the entire device is contained inside of a magnetic bottle that has a coil of a magnetic field metal and the magnetic bottle is contained in a ceramic box that is covered with lead plates an a battery is used to hold the electric current in storage for use of the electric systems of the invention, to provide an electric source for the invention; wherein; wherein the invention's "Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator" shall also comprise of and consisting of a Tidal regenerate engine that has a double walled capsule cylinder, contain a signal computer that is an electromagnet (29) that is activated to attract another magnet and the movement expands a bellows (22a) that forces a little water up a tube into a water boiler where heat from a radioactive source and a thorium plated magnetron maser protected by a window of quartz will vaporize water into steam and the steam is heated further inside of a super heater tube and the steam then pushes another bellows that, in turn, sends a pulse of hydraulic fluid through the hydraulic jack piston pump and will compress the hydraulic piston that will force and act upon a larger load than was originally acted upon it, and also force a lever and together will push this force ageist the crankshaft that will turn and turn the load bearing work wheel and the engine's oil pan is filled with oil and the work wheel will turn an electric generator and the entire engine is contained in a ceramic box that is covered with lead plates and barium plates and the ceramic box is located within a cement molded building and shall contain barium radiation absorbers and power extinguishers that shall discharge and absorb radiation when the extinguishers sense radiation leakage, wherein electric and power is produced for the invention; wherein; the invention's, comprises of a :cylinder housing operating inside of a magnetic bottle that is contained in a ceramic box that is covered with lead plates and barium plated and is located within a cement premolded building that contains the barium radiation absorbers and powder extinguishers, wherein the invention's "Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator" cylindrically shaped housing having water and a source of electric power to be amplified and converted into microwave energy and a source of generating microwave energy having its magnetron cathode tubes plated with radioactive nuclear materials as a source of amplifying the cathode rays that will be coveted into microwave energy to provide an output and a computer that uses either cable wire and or transmits data by radio waves and television KHZ-MHZ-GHZ waves to a radio and television receiver that is connected to a computer that is connected to a magnetic video/audio tape recorder for recording computer data inexpensively, wherein 1 VHS magnetic tape can hold 1.5 gigabytes of computer data, wherein the invention's "Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator", cylindrically shaped housing and thorium plated magnetron that emits microwave energy and a magnet receiving cosmic radio waves and converting the energy into usable electric current by using a crystal radio set with an antenna sensitive at collecting radio wave energy and using and storing it inside of a battery and the cosmic radio waves shall also be received and recorded on magnetic tape and stored for analysis of fluctuations and data pulses inside of the unit's audio-video recorder and accessed by the computer key code
2) A Thermionic Electron Electric Generator and Artificial Ammonia Diffuser as defined in claim 1 and in the specification, in which very low energy input creates a higher energy output.
3) Microwave Hot Water Boiler Heating System as defined in claim 1 and in the specification, in which low energy input creates a higher energy output.
4) A Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator as defined in claim 1 and in the specification, in which low level nuclear energy input creates a steady means of power, for charging batteries and providing electric current.
5) A Hydraulic Leverage Engine as defined in claim 1 and the specification; wherein 1 unit of input work is converted into 4 units of output work using a lever and hydraulic jacks.
6) The Zinc-Carbon Pill and Transistorized Plastic Paper Computer as defined in claim 1 and the specification, wherein microbes, viruses, bacteria and fungi are electrocuted without much human cell destruction, and information data is stored.
7) The Artificial Muscle Robot as defined in claim 1 and the specification wherein, the transistorized plastic paper computer is used a the CPU and the power source is a portable nuclear powered engine and electric generator.
8) The Artificial Heart Assister Pump as defined in claim 1 and the specification wherein a energy source is used to provide an output.
9) The Citizen's Band Free Public Radio wave Telephone as defined in claim 1 and the specification, wherein the transistorized plastic paper computer is used for radio propagation.
10) A Resurrection Machine and Consciousness Revival System as defined in claim 1 and the specification is incorporated with the Resurrection Burial Tomb, to provide output.
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Description
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[0001] Application Ser. No. 10/161,974
[0002] A RESURRECTION BURIAL TOMB in this application is a CIP of application Ser. No. 09/619,698 filed Jul. 19, 2000, which is a CIP of "A Resurrection Machine and Consciousness Revival System" application No. 60/144,245 filed Jul. 19, 1999 and a CIP of "The Thermionic Electron Electric Generator and Artifical Liver Ammonia Diffuser" application No. 60/295,356; filed on Jun. 04, 2001 and "The Microwave Hot Water Boiler Heating System" application Ser. No. 08/766,130 filed Dec. 16, 1996 U.S. Pat. No. 6,064,047 with Discloser Document #412019 priority, filed Jan. 10, 1997 and "The Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator" application Ser. No. 09/205,415 filed Dec. 02, 1998 (being a CIP of application Ser. No. 08/798,316 filed on Feb. 10, 1997) and "The Hydraulic Leverage Engine" application Ser. No. 09/177,760 filed on Oct. 24, 1998 (being a CIP of application Ser. No. 08/813,825 filed on Aug. 21, 1997 and application No. 60/063,068 filed on Oct. 27, 1997 and application No. 60/072,624 filed on Jan. 26, 1998 and "The Zinc-Carbon Pill and Transistorized Plastic Paper Computer" application Ser. No. 09/239,269 filed on Jan. 26, 1999 (being a CIP of application No. 60/072,579 filed on Jan. 26, 1998) and "The Artificial Muscle Robot" application No. 60/148,654 filed on Aug. 13, 1999 Pat. App No. 60/128,747 filed on Apr. 12, 1999 "Free Citizen's Band Public Radio wave Telephone System and Computer" Together with priority "conception of invention claims " of "The Artificial Heart Assister Pump" application No. 60/122,189 filed on Mar. 01, 1999 and Disclosure Document #452294 filed on Mar. 03, 1999 Together with priority "conception of invention claims" of: Disclosure Document #412019 filed on Jan. 10, 1997; Discloser Document #452294; Discloser Document #494846; Discloser Document #486705; Discloser Document #494219 filed May 21, 2001; Discloser Document #493,675 filed May 17, 2001; Discloser Document #493701;
[0003] The above references are held the priority and inventions, of the applicant, the Reverend Daniel Robert Izzo of 512 Onondaga Ave., Syracuse New Your 13207 citizen of the United States of America, who has not abandoned any of his science inventions, obviously, but views them as a form of his children.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
[0004] 1. Field of the Invention
[0005] This invention pertains to processes and devices that provide power and security from death, and more particularly, a noble branch or field thereof; known in psychoanalysis as an empowerment means that relieves some fears of eternal death and the anxiety about the same, together with devices to empower people who lack independent power sources.
[0006] 2. Background Information
[0007] In order to provide background information so that the invention maybe completely understood and appreciated in its proper context, reference may be made to a number of prior art patent and applications of the inventor as follows.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
[0008] It is another principle object of the invention; to provide the present Human Community, being sadomasocistic by nature; (re; cruel world, death and taxes; master-slave; cop-robber; landlord-tenant; schoolmaster-pupil; boss-worker etc.); with a more fun and better, self supporting prolonged Child Culture having Robot Parents and energy sources to empower the same; (re; man and machine), the inventor believes that this is the next progression in Human development, wherein government makes its own tax es from gold coins trans mutated from neutron bombarded lead and engineers a sort of made-made heaven; wherein the work is play and fun, inapt. Psychoanalysis shows that the 3 main issues that human beings deal with are issues of 1) Power, (food, heat, etc.) 2) Sex Gratification, (creation of children) 3) Security from Death. (religion tales anxiety relief, peace etc.) because they have survival value. This invention attempt provide human beings with issues; (1) Power; and a little more of issue (3) Security from Death.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
[0009] FIG. 1
[0010] 1) Is a drawing of the Resurrection Tomb holding the container of preservative; holding the dead person's body and connected to electrical and energy apparatus contained in the Resurrection Tomb consisting of concrete/cement molded manhole building/tomb with power source for the dead/dying human beings.
[0011] 2) Sealed entrance to building/tomb.
[0012] 3) Double walled, vacuum sealed container with preservative medium that prevents decay of human tissue and a means for tissue nutrition and oxygen.
[0013] 4) Depicts a power source, of a portable nuclear powered engine and electric generator and batteries for storage of electric power.
[0014] 5) Depicts a radio and communication system with antenna connected to power source.
[0015] 6) Turbine system that converts water and or wind power into electric/energy for the burial tomb.
[0016] 7) Depicts intelligent robot maintenance worker.
[0017] 8) Depicts a heating source.
[0018] 9) Depicts an engine/pumping system
[0019] 10) Depicts a means and apparatus that provides oxygen/nutrition t the surviving/growing human tissue.
[0020] 11) Depicts electrical apparatuses for monitoring communication and entertainment of the burial/chambers.
[0021] FIG. 2
[0022] 1) Depicts a dead human being inside of a container containing tissue preservative fluid; that has a radio wave crown.
[0023] 2) Connected to the head of the person; with an antenna that connects to a radio.
[0024] 3) That is either electric powered or a crystal radio; that can collect and store radio wave energy that all 1-4 fits inside of a piece molded man hole/building burial tomb.
[0025] 4) Radio waves
[0026] 5) Building/tomb.
[0027] 6) A human being's bone containing silicon, phosphorus and boron that is ground up.
[0028] 7) Grounded up elements and are used to produce a computer electric circuit that is placed inside of a computer.
[0029] 8) (Harry Quartz and Silicon crystals that oscillate at the frequency of the dead person's life/energy force.)
[0030] 9) With a human skeleton frame
[0031] 10) With a few bones missing waiting to have artificial muscles and intelligence restored to it's material. To become conscious again with it's old stored thoughts, mannerism and memories.
[0032] FIG. 3
[0033] Depicts two human beings (in fetal form) being kept alive in a jar of fluid.
[0034] 1) Awaiting the day that new nerves regenerate in their bodies to regain consciousness once again. Please note: When we die, " not all of our body is "dead" mainly our nerves and brain has "burned out" and "died", when we die. The rest of our body is OK for several days.
[0035] FIG. 4
[0036] Depicts a human skeleton that will be filtered with new artificial nerves; muscle and conscious together with organic compounds and nutrition.
[0037] FIG. 5
[0038] Depicts a human skeleton being filled with artificial nerves; muscle and eyes, preparing for a conscious resurrection.
[0039] FIG. 6
[0040] Depicts the preserved brain and nerves 1 that was from FIG (1). The preserved brain and nerves have been treated with nerve growth hormone that was cultured from olfactory nerves and other nerve hormones.
[0041] FIG. 7
[0042] Depicts arteries and veins far carries blood 1 or energy far artificial muscles.
[0043] FIG. 8
[0044] Depicts a human skeletal being fitted with artificial muscle that expands and contracts with data inputs. The artificial muscle used is silicon with elements and minerals used to expand and contract silicon and artificially grown organic muscles.
[0045] FIGS. 9 & 10
[0046] Depicts the Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator that produces energy for the unconscious human being's home and the dead human being's tomb, see CIP for specifications.
[0047] FIGS. 11 & 12
[0048] Depicts the Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator obtaining cosmic radio wave energy and is connected to the human material computer (30E; 30F;37) See the CIP specification for Ser. No. 09/205,415 and CIP application Ser. No. 09/177,760.
[0049] FIG. 13
[0050] Depicts the Cement Molded Building and Tomb (19B) being powered by the Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator, see CIP Application Ser. No. 09/177,760, and CIP specification for Ser. No. 09/205415.
[0051] FIGS. 14 & 15
[0052] Depicts the Microwave Hot water (40) Powered Heating System with Thorium plated Magnetron maser that provides heat for the building and tomb. See U.S. Pat. No. 6,064,047.
[0053] Ser. No. 10/181,974
[0054] FIG. 19) Depicts the invention's Citizen Band Free Public Radio wave Telephone System's unit A and B
[0055] 1) Audio input, microphone.
[0056] 2) Frequency programmer number pad to frequency crystal oscillator.
[0057] 3) Programmed radio frequency to signal number display showing 4.725088 MHz, 47.25088 MHz and 472.5088 kHz, usable in the U.S. when the government (FCC)allows common carrier use of radio frequency numbers similar to a person's telephone number, from 200 kHz Thur 999 kHz, 0.000010 MHz Thur 9.999999 MHz, 0.0000010 MHz Thur 99.999999 MHz. (with public radio stations frequencies reserved).
[0058] 4) Transmit and receive antennas.
[0059] 5) Keyboard to computer input.
[0060] 6) Speaker.
[0061] 7) Video Monitor/TV monitor.
[0062] 8) Fax machine/printer.
[0063] 9) Data input and computer storage data unit.
[0064] 10) Electric plug input/output.
[0065] 11) Telephone line for wire service.
[0066] 12) Cable input/output wire.
[0067] 13) Video/Audio camera that is removable.
[0068] 14) Source of communication antenna for (a) and (b) Radio wave receiver and transmit or
[0069] 15) Propagated Radio wave from devices A and B.
[0070] 16) Radio receiver speaker.
[0071] FIG. 19B) Depicts the invention's;
[0072] (1) audio input with cable wires
[0073] (2) input amplifier;
[0074] (3) radio frequency amplifier;
[0075] (4) modulated amplifier or a frequency modulator;
[0076] (5) modulated amplifier or a frequency modulator-master oscillator
[0077] (6) Radio frequency amplifier;
[0078] (7) Radio Frequency amplifier;
[0079] (8) Radio Frequency amplifier;
[0080] (9) Crystal oscillator that is programmable;
[0081] (10) Antenna;
[0082] (11) Pre-selected circuit;
[0083] (12) Frequency changer;
[0084] (13) Intermediate Frequency amplifier;
[0085] (14) Frequency detector,
[0086] (15) Low Frequency amplifier,
[0087] (17) Antenna
[0088] (18) local oscillate,
[0089] FIG. 20) Describes the invention's stream paddle wheel and electric generator, wherein the wind/river water flow (2) causes multiple paddle wheels (3) to turn a shaft (4) that turns and drives an electric generator (5) and the unit (1) produces electric current that is stored in the electric storage unit (6) being maintained/operated by the "Artificial Muscle Robot" of figure (2) part (10).
[0090] FIG. 21) Describes the invention's "Artificial Muscle Robots" artificial hand and the invention's artificial muscle hand having (1) one with artificial muscle (2) that is connected to a (bone) frame (8) with movable joints (4) and the artificial hand (1) is covered and protected with a material (3) that permits movement. The invention's artificial muscle (2) will expand and contract with force, using electric current by way of spring wires (6) that is within the artificial muscle (2) that is weaved and patterned and layered like a real human hand having sensors (7) for input/output signals through a central joint palm (5).
[0091] FIG. 22) Describes the invention's, "Artificial Muscle Robot" (10) that has a computer brain (9) with optical sensors (11) and an input/output communication device (12) and receives transmits radio communication (17) and the device (10) has arms (13) with artificial hands (1). wherein the robot (10) is powered by one of the invention's, "Portable Nuclear Powered Engine (15) and (16) and other electric inputs (18) and can move and perform handwork (1) (7) (6) of many tasks Human hands can perform to make Human life easier.
[0092] FIG. 39) Describes the invention's "Artificial Heart Assister Pump" and the "Zinc-Clove Leaf Oil Paste" 1) A Human Person 2) An Artificial Heart Assister Pump that is electric or nuclear powered. 3) A Human Heart. 4) The Zinc-Clove leaf oil paste on a
[0093] FIGS. (23) (24) (25) Describe the invention's, "Portable Nuclear Powered and Electric Generator" that comprises of a Stirling type engine having a doubled walled capsule cylinder (1) that is filled with helium gas (2) and contains a floating piston (3). At the top of the floating piston (3) is a pellet of radioactive material (4) that heats the helium (2) to about 1,200 degrees F., This very hot helium (2) expands rapidly, then forcefully drives down the piston (3) to the bottom of the cylinder (1) where the temperature is almost 1,100 degrees F., lower. As the piston (3) moves down it forces some of the gas out through a value (5) in the cylinder floor near the spring bellow (6). The floating piston (3) acts and pushes against the upper hydraulic jack (8) piston (7). The upper hydraulic jack (8) piston (7) will push against the helium reservoir (9) and will compress the helium gas and pushes against the helium reservoir (9) and will compress the hydraulic fluid reservoir (11) that will force the hydraulic jack pumps (8) lower hydraulic pistons(12) that will force and act upon a larger load than was originated upon it, and will push this force against the crankcase (13) that will turn and turn the load bearing work wheel (14). The invention's oil pan (15) is filed with oil. The work wheel (14) will turn an electric generator (16). The entire device is contained inside of a magnetic bottle (17) that has a coil of a magnetic field metal (18). The magnetic bottle (17) is contained in a ceramic box (19) that is covered with lead plates (20). A battery (21) is used to hold the electric current in storage for use of the electric systems of the invention.
[0094] FIGS. (27) (28) (29) Describe the invention's "Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator" consisting of a Tidal regenerator engine that has a double walled capsule cylinder (1) contain a signal computer (30) that signals an electromagnet (29) that is activated to attract another magnet (29b). The movement expands a bellows (22a) that forces a little water (26) up a tube (31) into a water boiler (24) where heat from a radioactive source (23) and or a thorium plated magnetron maser (33) protected by a window of quartz (34) will vaporize water (26) into steam (32). The steam (32) is heated further inside of a super heater tube (21). The steam (32) then pushes another bellows (22b) that, in turn, sends a pulse of hydraulic fluid (28b) through the hydraulic jack piston pump (28) and will compress the hydraulic piston (28c) that will force and act upon a larger load than was originally acted upon it, and also force a lever (35) and together will push this force ageist the crankshaft (13) that will turn and turn the load bearing work wheel (14). The engine's oil pan (15) is filled with oil. The work wheel (14) will turn an electric generator (16). The entire engine is contained in a ceramic box (19) that is covered with lead plates (20) and barium plates (20b) and the ceramic box (19) is located within a cement molded building (19b) and shall contain barium radiation absorbers and power extinguishers (20c) that shall discharge and absorb radiation when the extinguishers (20c) sense radiation leakage.
[0095] FIG. 30) Describes the invention's "Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator", cylinder housing (1) operating inside of a magnetic bottle (17) that is contained in a ceramic box (19) that is covered with lead plates (20) and barium plated (20b) and is located within a cement premolded building (19b) that contains the barium radiation absorbers and powder extinguishers (20c).
[0096] FIG. 31) Describes the invention's "Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator" cylindrically shaped housing (1) having water (26) and a source of electric power to be amplified and converted into microwave energy (36) and a source of generating microwave energy (33) having its magnetron cathode (33a) tubes plated with radioactive nuclear materials as a source of amplifying the cathode rays that will be coveted into microwave energy to provide an output (33b). A computer (30) that uses either cable wire (30b) and or transmits data by radio waves and television KHZ-MHZ-GHZ waves (30b) to a radio and television receiver (30c) that is connected to a computer (30e) that is connected to a magnetic video/audio tape recorder (30f) for recording computer data inexpensively, wherein 1 VHS magnetic tube (30f) can hold 1.5 gigabytes of computer data.
[0097] FIG. 32 Describes the invention's "Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator", cylindrically shaped housing (1) and thorium plated magnetron that emits microwave energy (33) and a magnet (29) receiving zzzzz930c) (39) cosmic radio waves (38) and converting the energy into usable electric current (40) by using a crystal radio set (39) with an antenna (40) sensitive at collecting radio wave energy (38) and using and storing it (41) inside of a battery. The cosmic radio waves (38) shall also be received (30c) and recorded on magnetic tape (30f) and stored for analysis of fluctuations and data pulses inside of the unit's (1-15) audio-video recorder (30f) and accessed by the computer key code (37)
[0098] FIG. 33) Describes the invention's Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator usage of lever bars (35) that will convert 1 ton of torque force into 4 tons of force, but a less distance.
[0099] FIG. 23) Details the invention's "Portable Nuclear Powered Engine and Electric Generator" that emits less radiation than 3 television sets.
[0100] Human Person's mouth that destroys microbes, such as Herpes virus.
[0101] FIG. 40) Describes the invention's "Hydraulic Pneumatic Engine" (1) and the "Microwave Hot Water Boiler Heating System" with a thorium plated magnetron (2) energy systems, using steam (3) from the microwave hot water boiler (2) to drive and help turn the hydraulic pneumatic engine (1) and electric generator (4) wherein the Artificial Muscle Robot of FIG. (10) assists in the operation of the invention's hydraulic pneumatic engine and microwave hot water boiler heating (5) energy system.
[0102] FIG. 41) Describes the invention's energy devices; 1) depicts the "Lever Engine" that can covert 1 ton of torque into 4 tons without gears/transmission. 2) depicts the "Thermionic Electron Electric Generator" having a power source, cathode, cesium, thorium, container with magnetic force inside, and a high voltage anode chamber with argon gas inside for output, wherein the input of 10 watts of electric power is amplified to about 10 watts of electric power output, for energy creation. 3)depicts the invention's "Hydraulic Pneumatic Engine" used for work functions. 4) depicts the invention's, "Portable Nuclear Powered Engine" that emits less radiation than 3 TV sets and is used for work functions and electric power generation
[0103] FIG. 42) Describes the invention's rebuilding and preserving Human persons who are deceased or suspended or are being revived into normal function, 10) depicts a means of cryogenic preservation, in the U. S. South Pole, Antarctica territory 11) depicts a Human person in an "Artificial Womb" coveted from an oxygen petrofusion machine, wherein the Hyman's cells are preserved/protected and can grown into normal function. 9,8,7,6,) depicts a Human bone being crystallized and coveted into a computer microprocessor, for an "Artificial Muscle Robot" consciousness and for some normal function. 4,3,2,1) depicts a Human person inside a container that is filled with a preservative medium that prevents decay and who is wearing a Crystal radio crown to hear the living, awaiting the day of resurrection. (when we die, we can still hear, if there is ear drum function.).
[0104] FIG. 43) Describes the invention's "Thermionic Electron-Electric Generator" (30) that is used to generate the invention's electric power, that is contained inside a sealed tube (10)5 contain a source of input power (4)d that heats a thorium tungsten nichrome wire (3)c that is inside another sealed tube (20) that contains cesium gas (5)e that generate electrons, wherein a thoriated platinum cathode (6)f obtains emitted electrons (1)a and emits more electrons inside a magnetic field (7)g having cobalt magnets (12)l; wherein an anode (11)k collects the electrons and sends them to a argon gas ionizer chamber (25) having argon gas therein(8)h wherein high voltage electric is present (26) that ionizes the radiation of the argon gas (8)h and causes electrons to rush to one electron (27) and positively charged ions to the other electrode (27) and positively charged ions to the other electrode (28); wherein the electrons join other electrons emitted from the anode (11)k at the negative electrode (27); as the radiation and high voltage causes an electric current within the device (30) and sends it to the increased electric output to the invention's electric current supply (13)m
[0105] FIG. 44) Depicts the invention's electric generator having radioactive cobalt 60 magnets. and depicts radioactive cobalt60 magnets that cause electrons to move faster than iron magnets and produces more electric output per calorie than iron magnets and its output is increased by high voltage argon gas ionization inside the electric generator, wherein (1) radioactive cobalt fuel structure magnets create a magnetic field; wherein (2) coils of wire are mounted so that they can be spun around in a magnetic field with mechanical energy (10) input; wherein the entire device is inside a vacuum tube (6) that is filled with a gas (4) and charged to a very high voltage (4a) wherein the radioactive cobalt 60(1) ionizes the gas (4) splitting the electrically neutral gas (4) into positively charged ions (13) and negatively charged electrons (3) wherein the positive ions (13) rush to one electrode (6a) and the electrons (3) rush to the other electrode wire (2) wherein this triggers an electric current from one electrode (2) to the other, (6a) while the mechanical energy input (10) turns the wire coil electrode (2) and creates electrical output (11) between the cobalt60 magnetic field magnets (1) wherein magnetic force and ionized gas of radioactive cobalt60 (1) magnets make electrons move in the wire coil (2) generating an electric current output, (11).
[0106] FIG. 45) Describes the invention's electric systems (1) connected to the invention's electric wiring (2) that provides amplified electricity; wherein the "Thermionic Electron Electric Generator" (3) (4) are a source of amplified electric power to the invention's wiring (2).
[0107] FIG. 46) Describes the invention's devices that convert heat energy into electric current (1) (2) (3) (4) (5).
[0108] FIG. 47) Describes the invention's Microwave Boiler, converting thorium/uranium electrons into microwave energy (1) (2) (3).
[0109] (1) depicts said magnetron microwave device, (2) (3) depicts said microwave magnetron and a klystron thats cathodes and anodes are plated with thorium and uranium and whose magnets are of radioactive cobalt., wherein the invention's microwave emitting device shall be improved by plating the magnetron's electric cathode with thorium and uranium that is radioactive, the anode is of magnetizable metal, radioactive cobalt, nickel or iron and the anode is plated with radioactive metal; wherein the operation of the invention's magnetron, a high D-C potent is applied between cathode and anode, setting up a radial electric field, wherein the combined forces cause electrons to take a spiral path and when the magnetron oscillates, the electric oscillations of the magnetron resonators set up an A-C electric fuel across the resonator gaps, wherein the thorium and uranium metal cathode, magnetic metal anode of cobalt and plated with radioactive metal in the magnetron sets up an increase in spiraling reactions when an electric current is applied and causes the magnetron output current to be many times the electric input of the invention's magnetron.
[0110] FIG. 48) Describes the invention's electric devices converting thorium, uranium, cesium tungsten, nichrome and argon gas atoms interacting and generating electron emissions into electric energy.
[0111] FIG. 49) Describes the invention's devices using mechanical energy input and obtain a greater energy output of electric energy.
[0112] FIG. 50) Describes the invention's Thermionic Electron-Electric Generator, that coverts a smaller energy power input into a larger electric energy output.
[0113] FIG. 51) Describes the invention's devices converting heat energy and electro magnetic energy into a larger electric energy output.
[0114] FIG. 52) Describes the invention's devices converting a smaller electric energy input into a larger heating calorie output for room tomb air radiant heat.
[0115] FIG. 53) Describes the invention's devices converting thermionic emissions into a larger radiant energy output.
[0116] FIG. 54) Describes the invention's devices using cobalt magnets and mechanical energy together with high voltage ionized argon gas to provide an output of electric energy.
[0117] FIG. 55) Describes the inventions devices using cobalt 60 magnets.
[0118] FIG. 56) Describes the invention's devices using rare earth elements to increase the power output.
[0119] FIG. 57) Describes the invention's devices converting electrical input into mechanical output.
[0120] FIG. 58) Describes the invention's "Artificial Liver and Ammonia Diffuser" for cirrhosis treatments with blood clotting restorability; comprising of a (1) container having an input tube (14) containing Human (14) Blood with toxins that is filtered with a calcium filter (2) that circulates and moves the blood/fluid with an electric pump (13) and mixes plasma fluid input (3) and connects (13) into and restores blood clotting, a settling tank (5) that connects (13) into another calcium filter (2) tank (6) that then send the filtered blood (13) that has its clottability restored; into another tank (8) wherein the blood is again filtered (2) and slightly heated (7) in the unit (8) tank where the blood is again filtered (2) and slightly heated (7) in the unit (8) tank; wherein the slight heating and calcium mixes with the Human blood and causes ammonia toxins (9) to diffuse into a vent (9) and the blood is sent through a connecting pipe (13) into a cooling unit (10) and filters (10a) down to remove any extra calcium and cools the blood and fluid and sends (13) the cleaned of toxins blood/fluid into a storage tank (11) and a output tube (12) for use if a Human Being and final testing to insure toxin material removal, before being used to the person in need.

* * * * *
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At November 5, 2005 at 4:53 PM, Blogger Br Dan Izzo said...

Below is a copy of that letter emailed to the Nobel Committee

Subj:Den Gravitational Cosmological Teorien om formationen om Universum Vid Bror Dans Date:8/19/04 11:22:56 PM Eastern Daylight TimeFrom: Revdanielizzo To:comments@www.nobel.
Sekretariat@SvenskaAkademien.

Till Nobel Kommitté : 08/20/2004

Alternativ Cosmological Teorien till standaren Stor Bang modell :

Den Gravitational Cosmological Teorien om formationen om Universum Vid Bror Dansk Izzo USA

När auktoriserat inte rörelse första börja? Vetenskap veta formationen av materia i vår

universum var orsakat vid den pressar om universum De här pressar de/vi/du/ni är : (1)

Styrkan av Tyngd (2) Styrkan av Elektronen Magnetismen (3) Den Stark Kärn- Styrka (4)

Den Svag Kärn- Styrka På något punkt efter en tid , rörelse inom det rått universum , har till

börja. Paradoxen skulle bli , vad styrka kunde orsak rörelse till börja , utan flyttanden i sin

föreställa utrymme - tid? Den Gravitational Cosmological Teorien om formationen om

Universum är en teori er vecklat upp den där er grundfästet i theEinstein och den

Förbindelse - Guld Hoyle Stadig Stat teoretisera , vari den Stadig Stat teorien den

universum innehåll mer protokoll än elektronerna så pass skapa damm partikeln och galax

format i deras ström lokaliseringarna och den kosmisk materia är återanvända där på den

centrerat om galax masugn. När den Universum startat till falla : Den Gravitational

Instability Cosmological Teorien på det Formationen om Universum. Teorien : (1)

Utbredande om universum är en vara resultatet om " hetta ' innehållet där ; (2) Källan om "

hetta " är den kosmisk microwave utstrålningen backround på kelvin , vari ; (3) Den

microwave elektronen magnetisk - kärn-energien var format som resultat av den växelverkan

av två olik statisk gravitational tomheten fälten , orsaker gravitational instability och rörelsen

, tom av materia , på denne tid , vari ; statisk gravitational fält (1) begynt till gå in i " rörelse

". Därför ; bara (2) statisk gravitational tomheten fälten ensam , varelse tom av EMC2=^

kunde skapa EMC2=^; och materian om Universum. Q: När auktoriserat inte den här

rörelse börja? en Om en neutral partikel är köpa duktig stå emot den allmän rörelse ,

teoretisk sett , så pass partikel skulle gå tillbaka efter en tid. Gående rygg efter en tid den

neutral partikel skulle då gå sig på (1) om (2) orörlig - statisk tyngd tomheten fälten tom av

rörelse , och orsak en unbalance och gravitational instability och den här växelverkan skulle

skapa rörelse och kraft partikeln Q: Vad anledningarna en gravitational statisk tomheten fält

inne om första ställe? en Tryck styrka är använd till skapa en tomheten på jord , kanske en

exotisk något 100,000 tiden försvaga än styrkan av tyngd förfall orsaker en statisk tyngd

tomheten fält. Teorien vid Bror Dansk Izzo BA MS praktisk forskning Onondaga Ave

Syracuse New York 13207 USA Juli 2002 telephone 315-472-5088 & issue 2 Ezra Carducci 85y/o Manlius New York USA telephone 315-637-8612

 
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